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Tutorial – 74HC4067 16-Channel Analog Multiplexer Demultiplexer

4067, 74HC4067, arduino, demultiplexer, demultiplexing, Multiplexer, multiplexing, part, part review, review, tronixstuff, tutorial Commenti disabilitati su Tutorial – 74HC4067 16-Channel Analog Multiplexer Demultiplexer 

Introduction

Now and again there’s a need to expand the I/O capabilities of your chosen micorocontroller, and instead of upgrading you can often use external parts to help solve the problem. One example of this is the 74HC4067 16-channel analog multiplexer demultiplexer. That’s a mouthful – however in simple form it’s an IC that can direct a flow of current in either direction from one pin  to any one of sixteen pins. Another way to think abou it is that you can consider the 74HC4067 to be a digital replacement to those rotary switches that allow you to select one of sixteen positions.

Here’s an example of the SMD version:

74HC4067

Don’t let that put you off, it’s just what we had in stock at the time. The part itself is available in through-hole and surface mount versions.

Using the 74HC4067

At this point you should download the data sheet, as we refer to it through the course of the article. The first thing to note is that the 74HC4067 can operate on voltages between 2 and 6V DC, which allows use with 3.3V and 5V microcontrollers and boards such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi. If for some reason you have the 74HCT4067 it can only work on 4.5~5.5V DC.  Next – consider the pinout diagram from the data sheet:

74HC4067 pinoutThe power supply for the part is applied to pin 24, and GND to … pin 12. Pin 15 is used to turn the control the current flow through the inputs/outputs – if this is connected to Vcc the IC stops flow, and when connected to GND it allows flow. You can always control this with a digital output pin if required, or just tie it to GND if this doesn’t matter.

Next – pin one. This is where the current either flows in to be sent to one of the sixteen outputs – or where the current flows out from one of the sixteen inputs. The sixteen inputs/outputs are labelled I0~I15. Finally there are the four control pins – labelled S0~S3. By setting these HIGH or LOW (Vcc or GND) you can control which I/O pins the current flow is directed through. So how does that work? Once again – reach for the the data sheet and review the following table:

74HC4067 truth tableNot only does it show what happens when pin 15 is set to HIGH (i.e. nothing) it shows what combination of HIGH and LOW for the control pins are required to select which I/O pin the current will flow through. If you scroll down a bit hopefully you noticed that the combination of S0~S3 is in fact the binary equivalent of the pin number – with the least significant bit first. For example, to select pin 9 (9 in binary is 1001) you set the IC pins S0 and S3 to HIGH, and S1 and S2 to LOW. How you control those control pins is of course up to you – either with some digital logic circuit for your application or as mentioned earlier with a microcontroller.

Limitations 

Apart from the power supply requirements, there are a few limitations to keep in mind. Open you data sheet and consider the “DC Electrical Specifications” table. The first two parameters show what the minimum voltage that can be considered as a HIGH and the maximum for a LOW depending on your supply voltage. The next item of interest is the “ON” resistance – that is the resistance in Ohms (Ω) between one of the sixteen inputs/outputs and the common pin. When a channel is active, and a 5V supply voltage, we measured a resistance of 56Ω without a load through that channel – and the data sheet shows other values depending on the current load and supply voltage. Finally, don’t try and run more than 25 mA of current through a pin.

Examples

Now to show an example of both multiplexing and demultiplexing. For demonstration purposes we’re using an Arduino Uno-compatible board with the 74HC4067 running from a 5V supply voltage. Pin 15 of the ’4067 is set to GND, and control pins S0~S3 are connected to Arduino digital output pins D7~D4 respectively.

Multiplexing

This is where we select one input pin of sixteen and allow current to flow through to the common pin (1). In this example we connect the common pin to the board’s analog input pin – so this can be used as a method of reading sixteen analog signals (one at a time) using only one ADC. When doing so – take note of the limitations mentioned earlier – take some resistance measurements in your situation to determine what the maximum value will be from your ADC and calibrate code accordingly.

With both of the examples we’ll use port manipulation to control the digital pins which are connected to the 74HC4067′s control pins. We do this as it reduces the code required and conceptually I feel it’s easier. For example – to select I/O 15 you need to turn on all the control pins – so you just have to set Arduino PORTD to B11110000 (which is binary 15 LSB first) and much neater than using four digitalWrite() functions.

In the following example sketch, you can see how we’ve put the binary values for each control possibility in the array byte controlPins[] – which is then used to set the pins easily in void loop().

This simply sets each input pin in turn, then reads the ADC value into an array – whose values are then sent to the serial monitor:

// 74HC4067 multiplexer demonstration (16 to 1)

// control pins output table in array form
// see truth table on page 2 of TI 74HC4067 data sheet
// connect 74HC4067 S0~S3 to Arduino D7~D4 respectively
// connect 74HC4067 pin 1 to Arduino A0
byte controlPins[] = {B00000000, 
                  B10000000,
                  B01000000,
                  B11000000,
                  B00100000,
                  B10100000,
                  B01100000,
                  B11100000,
                  B00010000,
                  B10010000,
                  B01010000,
                  B11010000,
                  B00110000,
                  B10110000,
                  B01110000,
                  B11110000 }; 

// holds incoming values from 74HC4067                  
byte muxValues[] = {0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,};

void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  DDRD = B11111111; // set PORTD (digital 7~0) to outputs
}

void setPin(int outputPin)
// function to select pin on 74HC4067
{
  PORTD = controlPins[outputPin];
}

void displayData()
// dumps captured data from array to serial monitor
{
  Serial.println();
  Serial.println("Values from multiplexer:");
  Serial.println("========================");
  for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++)
  {
    Serial.print("input I"); 
    Serial.print(i); 
    Serial.print(" = "); 
    Serial.println(muxValues[i]);
  }
  Serial.println("========================");  
}

void loop()
{
  for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++)
  {
    setPin(i); // choose an input pin on the 74HC4067
    muxValues[i]=analogRead(0); // read the vlaue on that pin and store in array
  }

  // display captured data
  displayData();
  delay(2000); 
}

… and a quick video of the results:

Demultiplexing

Now for the opposite function – sending current from the common pin to one of sixteen outputs. A fast example of this is by controlling one of sixteen LEDs each connected to an output pin, and with 5V on the 74HC4067 common pin. We don’t need current-limiting resistors for the LEDs due to the internal resistance in the 74HC4067. Here’s the sketch:

// 74HC4067 demultiplexer demonstration (1 to 16)

// control pins output table in array form
// see truth table on page 2 of TI 74HC4067 data sheet
// connect 74HC4067 S0~S3 to Arduino D7~D4 respectively
// 5V to 74HC4067 pin 1 to power the LEDs :)
byte controlPins[] = {B00000000, 
                      B10000000,
                      B01000000,
                      B11000000,
                      B00100000,
                      B10100000,
                      B01100000,
                      B11100000,
                      B00010000,
                      B10010000,
                      B01010000,
                      B11010000,
                      B00110000,
                      B10110000,
                      B01110000,
                      B11110000 }; 

void setup()
{
  DDRD = B11111111; // set PORTD (digital 7~0) to outputs
}

void setPin(int outputPin)
// function to select pin on 74HC4067
{
  PORTD = controlPins[outputPin];
}

void loop()
{
  for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++)
  {
    setPin(i);
    delay(250);
  }
}

… and the LEDs in action:

Conclusion

If you’re considering the 74HC4067 or hadn’t known about it previously, we hope you found this of interest. If you have any questions please leave them below or privately via the contact page. And if you made it this far – check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

 

The post Tutorial – 74HC4067 16-Channel Analog Multiplexer Demultiplexer appeared first on tronixstuff.

Introduction

If you’re experimenting with various Arduino or other projects and working with LED matrices or lots of LEDs – you may have come across the Maxim MAX7219 “Serially Interfaced, 8-Digit, LED Display Driver” IC. It’s a great part that can drive an 8 x 8 LED matrix or eight digits of seven-segment LED displays very easily. However over the last few years the price has shot up considerably. Supply and demand doing their thing – and for a while there was also the Austria Microsystems AS1107 drop-in replacement, which could be had for a few dollars less. But no more.

So where does the budget-minded person go from here? Charlieplexing? Lots of shift registers? Or dig a little deeper to find some cheaper units. With a MAX7219 heading north of US$10 in single units, they may turn to ebay or other grey-market suppliers in the Far East. Everyone likes to save money – and who can blame them? However with the proliferation of counterfeiting, “third shift” operations and other shifty practices – is buying those cheaper examples worth it?

A few people have been asking me of late, and there’s only one way to find out … so over the last month I ordered eight random “MAX7219s” from different suppliers on ebay and will compare them to the real thing using somewhat unscientific methods, then see how they work. The funny thing was that after five weeks only six of the eight arrived – so there’s risk number one: if it doesn’t come from a reputable supplier, it might not come at all. Funny stuff. Anyhow, let’s get started by looking at the differences between the real MAX7219 and the others.

Pricing differences

The easiest hint is the price. The non-originals are always cheaper. And if you wonder how much the real ones are in bulk, the quickest indicator is to check the Maxim website and that of a few larger distributors  For example the Maxim “sticker price” for 1000 units is US$4.18 each:

maxpricing

How much at Digikey? Lots of 500 for US$4.67 each:

digikey

And you wouldn’t buy just one from element14 at this price:

aue14pricing

However in fairness to element14 they will price match if you’re buying in volume. So if you can get a “MAX7219″ delivered for US$1.50 – there’s something wrong. Moving on, let’s examine some of those cheap ones in more detail.

Visual differences

If you’ve never seen a real MAX7219 – here it is, top and bottom:

realtopss

realbottomss

And here’s our rogue’s gallery of test subjects:

testsubjectsss

In a few seconds the differences should be blindingly obvious – look at the positioning of the printed bar across the part, the printing of the logo, and the general quality and positioning of the printing. Next, those circles embedded in the top of the body at both ends of the part, and the semi-circle at the top end. And if you turn them over, there’s nothing on the bottom. Furthermore, there isn’t a divot indicating pin 1 on the fakes, as shown on the real part:

divot

Oh – did you notice the legs on the real one? Look closely again at the image above, then consider the legs on the others below:

fakelegsss

Finally, the non-originals are shorter. The Maxim width can fall between 28.96 and 32.13 mm – with our original test MAX7219 being 32 mm:

realwidthss

and all the test subjects are narrower, around 29.7 mm:

fakewidthss

Fascinating. Finally, I found the quality of the metal used for the legs to be worse than the original, they were easier to bend and had trouble going into an IC socket. You can find all the physical dimensions and other notes in the data sheet available from the Maxim website. Finally, this packaging made me laugh – knock-offs in knock-off tubes? (Maxim purchased Dallas Semiconductor a while ago)

faketubingss

Weight difference

Considering that they’re shorter, they must weigh less. In the following video I put the original on the scales, tare it to zero then place each test subject – you can see the difference in weigh. The scales are out a bit however the differences are still obvious:

However over time the manufacturers may go to the effort of making copies that match the weight, size and printing – so future copies may be much better. However you can still fall back to the price to determine a copy.

Do they actually work? 

After all that researching and measuring – did they work? One of the subjects came with a small LED matrix breakout board kit:

matrixassembledss

… so I used that with a simple Arduino sketch that turned on each matrix LED one at a time, then went through the PWM levels – then left them all on at maximum brightness.

#include "LedControl.h"
LedControl lc=LedControl(12,11,10,1); // data, clock, load, 1 MAX7219
void setup() 
{
 lc.shutdown(0,false);
 lc.setIntensity(0,15);
 lc.clearDisplay(0);
}
void single() {
 for(int row=0;row<8;row++) {
 for(int col=0;col<8;col++) {
 delay(25);
 lc.setLed(0,row,col,true);
 delay(25);
 for(int i=0;i
void loop() 
{ 
 single();
 for (int n=0; n<5; n++)
 {
 for (int z=0; z<16; z++)
 {
 lc.setIntensity(0,z);
 delay(100);
 }
 for (int z=15; z>-1; --z)
 {
 lc.setIntensity(0,z);
 delay(100);
 }
 }
 lc.setIntensity(0,15);
 do { }  while(1);
}

Here’s the real MAX7219 running through the test:

And test subjects one through to six running it as well:

And from a reader request, some current measurements. First the current used by the entire matrix module at full PWM brightness, then with LEDs off, then the MAX7219 in shutdown mode:

current

Well that was disheartening. I was hoping and preparing for some blue smoke, dodgy displays or other faults. However the little buggers all worked, didn’t overheat or play up at all.

Conclusion

Six random samples from ebay – and they all worked. However your experience may vary wildly. Does this tell us that copies are OK to use? From my own personal opinion – you do what you have to do with respect to your own work and that for others. In other words – if you’re making something for someone, whether it be a gift or a commercial product, or something you will rely on – use the real thing. You can’t risk a fault in those situations.  If you’re just experimenting, not in a hurry, or just don’t have the money – try the cheap option. But be prepared for the worst – and know you’re supporting an industry that ethically shouldn’t exist. And at the end – to be sure you’re getting a real one – choose from a Maxim authorised source.

I’m sure everyone will have an opinion on this, so let us know about it in the moderated comments section below.  And if you made it this far – check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.


Introduction

[Here's the Arduino tutorial]

If you’re experimenting with various Arduino or other projects and working with LED matrices or lots of LEDs – you may have come across the Maxim MAX7219 “Serially Interfaced, 8-Digit, LED Display Driver” IC. It’s a great part that can drive an 8 x 8 LED matrix or eight digits of seven-segment LED displays very easily. However over the last few years the price has shot up considerably. Supply and demand doing their thing – and for a while there was also the Austria Microsystems AS1107 drop-in replacement, which could be had for a few dollars less. But no more.

So where does the budget-minded person go from here? Charlieplexing? Lots of shift registers? Or dig a little deeper to find some cheaper units. With a MAX7219 heading north of US$10 in single units, they may turn to ebay or other grey-market suppliers in the Far East. Everyone likes to save money – and who can blame them? However with the proliferation of counterfeiting, “third shift” operations and other shifty practices – is buying those cheaper examples worth it?

A few people have been asking me of late, and there’s only one way to find out … so over the last month I ordered eight random “MAX7219s” from different suppliers on ebay and will compare them to the real thing using somewhat unscientific methods, then see how they work. The funny thing was that after five weeks only six of the eight arrived – so there’s risk number one: if it doesn’t come from a reputable supplier, it might not come at all. Funny stuff. Anyhow, let’s get started by looking at the differences between the real MAX7219 and the others. (Or if you want to learn how to use the MAX7219 with Arduino – click here).

Pricing differences

The easiest hint is the price. The non-originals are always cheaper. And if you wonder how much the real ones are in bulk, the quickest indicator is to check the Maxim website and that of a few larger distributors  For example the Maxim “sticker price” for 1000 units is US$4.18 each:

maxpricing

How much at Digikey? Lots of 500 for US$4.67 each:

digikey

And you wouldn’t buy just one from element14 at this price:

aue14pricing

However in fairness to element14 they will price match if you’re buying in volume. So if you can get a “MAX7219″ delivered for US$1.50 – there’s something wrong. Moving on, let’s examine some of those cheap ones in more detail.

Visual differences

If you’ve never seen a real MAX7219 – here it is, top and bottom:

realtopss

realbottomss

And here’s our rogue’s gallery of test subjects:

testsubjectsss

In a few seconds the differences should be blindingly obvious – look at the positioning of the printed bar across the part, the printing of the logo, and the general quality and positioning of the printing. Next, those circles embedded in the top of the body at both ends of the part, and the semi-circle at the top end. And if you turn them over, there’s nothing on the bottom. Furthermore, there isn’t a divot indicating pin 1 on the fakes, as shown on the real part:

divot

Oh – did you notice the legs on the real one? Look closely again at the image above, then consider the legs on the others below:

fakelegsss

Finally, the non-originals are shorter. The Maxim width can fall between 28.96 and 32.13 mm – with our original test MAX7219 being 32 mm:

realwidthss

and all the test subjects are narrower, around 29.7 mm:

fakewidthss

Fascinating. Finally, I found the quality of the metal used for the legs to be worse than the original, they were easier to bend and had trouble going into an IC socket. You can find all the physical dimensions and other notes in the data sheet available from the Maxim website. Finally, this packaging made me laugh – knock-offs in knock-off tubes? (Maxim purchased Dallas Semiconductor a while ago)

faketubingss

Weight difference

Considering that they’re shorter, they must weigh less. In the following video I put the original on the scales, tare it to zero then place each test subject – you can see the difference in weigh. The scales are out a bit however the differences are still obvious:

However over time the manufacturers may go to the effort of making copies that match the weight, size and printing – so future copies may be much better. However you can still fall back to the price to determine a copy.

Do they actually work? 

After all that researching and measuring – did they work? One of the subjects came with a small LED matrix breakout board kit:

matrixassembledss

… so I used that with a simple Arduino sketch that turned on each matrix LED one at a time, then went through the PWM levels – then left them all on at maximum brightness.

#include "LedControl.h"
LedControl lc=LedControl(12,11,10,1); // data, clock, load, 1 MAX7219
void setup() 
{
 lc.shutdown(0,false);
 lc.setIntensity(0,15);
 lc.clearDisplay(0);
}
void single() {
 for(int row=0;row<8;row++) {
 for(int col=0;col<8;col++) {
 delay(25);
 lc.setLed(0,row,col,true);
 delay(25);
 for(int i=0;i
void loop() 
{ 
 single();
 for (int n=0; n<5; n++)
 {
 for (int z=0; z<16; z++)
 {
 lc.setIntensity(0,z);
 delay(100);
 }
 for (int z=15; z>-1; --z)
 {
 lc.setIntensity(0,z);
 delay(100);
 }
 }
 lc.setIntensity(0,15);
 do { }  while(1);
}

Here’s the real MAX7219 running through the test:

And test subjects one through to six running it as well:

And from a reader request, some current measurements. First the current used by the entire matrix module at full PWM brightness, then with LEDs off, then the MAX7219 in shutdown mode:

current

Well that was disheartening. I was hoping and preparing for some blue smoke, dodgy displays or other faults. However the little buggers all worked, didn’t overheat or play up at all.

Conclusion

Six random samples from ebay – and they all worked. However your experience may vary wildly. Does this tell us that copies are OK to use? From my own personal opinion – you do what you have to do with respect to your own work and that for others. In other words – if you’re making something for someone, whether it be a gift or a commercial product, or something you will rely on – use the real thing. You can’t risk a fault in those situations.  If you’re just experimenting, not in a hurry, or just don’t have the money – try the cheap option. But be prepared for the worst – and know you’re supporting an industry that ethically shouldn’t exist. And at the end – to be sure you’re getting a real one – choose from a Maxim authorised source.

I’m sure everyone will have an opinion on this, so let us know about it in the moderated comments section below.  And if you made it this far – check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

LEDborder

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post The MAX7219 LED display controller – real or fake? appeared first on tronixstuff.



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