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When you’re sick or have a headache, you tend to see things a bit differently. An ill-feeling human will display a cognitive bias and expect the world to punish them further. The same is true of honey bees. They are intelligent creatures that exhibit a variety of life skills, such as decision-making and learning.

It was proven back in 2011 that honey bees will make more pessimistic decisions after being shaken in a way that simulates an attack by varroa destructor mites. The bees were trained to associate a reward of sugar-water with a particular odor and to associate foul-tasting punishment water with another odor—that of formic acid, a common treatment against varroa mites. When a third stimulus created by mixing the two odors was presented, the experimenters found that the aggravated bees were more likely to expect the bad odor. Sure enough, they kept their tongues in their mouths when they smelled the third odor. All the bees that weren’t shaken looked forward to sucking down a bit of sugar-water.

So, how does one judge a honey bee’s response? Whenever their antennae come in contact with something appetizing, they stick out their proboscis involuntarily to have a taste. This is called proboscis extension reflex (PER), and it’s the ingrained, day-one behavior that leads them to suck the nectar out of flower blossoms and regurgitate it to make honey.

[LJohann] is a behavioral biologist who wanted to test the effects of varroa mite treatment on bee-havior by itself, without agitating the bees. He built a testing apparatus to pump odors toward bees and judge their response which is shown in a few brief demo videos after the break. This device enables [LJohann] to restrain a bee, tantalize its antennae with sucrose, and pump a stimulus odor at its face on the cue of an LED and piezo buzzer. A fan mounted behind the bee helps clear the air of the previous scents. We especially like the use of a servo to swing the tube in and out of the bee’s face between tests.

[LJohann] and his colleagues concluded that the varroa mite treatment by itself does not make the bees pessimistic. This is great news for concerned apiarists who might be skeptical about using formic acid in the fight against the honey bee’s worst predator. Check out the brief demo videos after the break.

Hackaday has long been abuzz about bees whether they produce honey or not. We’ve covered many kinds of sweet projects like intelligent hives, remote hive weight monitoring, and man-made bee nest alternatives.

Filed under: Arduino Hacks


In this article we examine the Seeedstudio ”Bluetooth Bee“ modules and how they can be used in a simple way in conjunction with Android devices to control the Arduino world.  Here is an example of a Bluetooth Bee:

For the curious, the hardware specifications are as follows:

  • Typical -80dBm sensitivity
  • Up to +4dBm RF transmit power
  • Fully Qualified Bluetooth V2.0+EDR 3Mbps Modulation
  • Low Power 1.8V Operation, 1.8 to 3.6V I/O
  • UART interface with programmable baud rate
  • Integrated PCB antenna.
  • XBee compatible headers

You may have noticed that the Bluetooth Bee looks similar to the Xbee-style data transceivers – and it is, in physical size and some pinouts, for example:

The neat thing with the BtB (Bluetooth Bee) is that it is compatible with Xbee sockets and Arduino shields. It is a 3.3V device and has the same pinouts for Vcc, GND, TX and RX – so an existing Xbee shield will work just fine.

In some situations you may want to use your BtB on one UART and have another for debugging or other data transport from an Arduino – which means the need for a software serial port. To do this you can get a “Bees Shield” which allows for two ‘Bee format transceivers on one board, which also has jumpers to select software serial pins for one of them. For example:

Although not the smallest, the Bees Shield proves very useful for experimenting and busy wireless data transmit/receive systems. More about the Bees Shield can be found on their product wiki.

Quick Start 

In the past many people have told me that bluetooth connectivity has been too difficult or expensive to work with. In this article I want to make things as simple as possible, allowing you to just move forward with your ideas and projects. One very useful function is to control an Arduino-compatible board with an Android-based mobile phone that has Bluetooth connectivity. Using the BtB we can create a wireless serial text bridge between the phone and the Arduino, allowing control and data transmission between the two.

We do this by using a terminal application on the Android device – for our examples we will be using “BlueTerm” which can be downloaded from Google Play – search for “blueterm” as shown below:

In our Quick Start example, we will create a system where we can turn on or off four Arduino digital output pins from D4~D7. (If you are unsure about how to program an Arduino, please consider this short series of tutorials). The BtB is connected using the Bees shield. This is based on the demonstration sketch made available on the BtB Wiki page - we will use commands from the terminal on the Android device to control the Arduino board, which will then return back status.

As the BtB transmit and receive serial data we will have it ‘listen’ to the virtual serial port on pins 9 and 10 for incoming characters. Using a switch…case function it then makes decisions based on the incoming character. You can download the sketch from here. It is written for Arduino v23. If you were to modify this sketch for your own use, study the void loop() section to see how the incoming data is interpreted, and how data is sent back to the Android terminal using blueToothSerial.println

Before using it for the first time you will need to pair the BtB with your Android device. The PIN is set to a default of four zeros. After setting up the hardware and uploading the sketch, wait until the LEDs on the BtB blink alternately – at this point you can get a connection and start communicating. In the following video clip you can see the whole process:

Where to from here?

There are many more commands that can be set using terminal software from a PC with a Bluetooth adaptor, such as changing the PIN, device name and so on. All these are described in the BtB Wiki page along with installation instructions for various operating systems.

Once again I hope you found this article interesting and useful. The Bluetooth Bees are an inexpensive and useful method for interfacing your Arduino to other Bluetooth-compatible devices. For more information and product support, visit the Seeedstudio product pages.

Bluetooth Bees are available from Seeedstudio and their network of distributors.

Disclaimer - Bluetooth Bee products used in this article are promotional considerations made available by Seeedstudio.

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The post Arduino, Android and Seeedstudio Bluetooth Bee appeared first on tronixstuff.

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