Posts | Comments

Planet Arduino

Archive for the ‘demultiplexer’ Category

Ago
05

Tutorial – 74HC4067 16-Channel Analog Multiplexer Demultiplexer

4067, 74HC4067, arduino, demultiplexer, demultiplexing, Multiplexer, multiplexing, part, part review, review, tronixstuff, tutorial Commenti disabilitati su Tutorial – 74HC4067 16-Channel Analog Multiplexer Demultiplexer 

Introduction

Now and again there’s a need to expand the I/O capabilities of your chosen micorocontroller, and instead of upgrading you can often use external parts to help solve the problem. One example of this is the 74HC4067 16-channel analog multiplexer demultiplexer. That’s a mouthful – however in simple form it’s an IC that can direct a flow of current in either direction from one pin  to any one of sixteen pins. Another way to think abou it is that you can consider the 74HC4067 to be a digital replacement to those rotary switches that allow you to select one of sixteen positions.

Here’s an example of the SMD version:

74HC4067

Don’t let that put you off, it’s just what we had in stock at the time. The part itself is available in through-hole and surface mount versions.

Using the 74HC4067

At this point you should download the data sheet, as we refer to it through the course of the article. The first thing to note is that the 74HC4067 can operate on voltages between 2 and 6V DC, which allows use with 3.3V and 5V microcontrollers and boards such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi. If for some reason you have the 74HCT4067 it can only work on 4.5~5.5V DC.  Next – consider the pinout diagram from the data sheet:

74HC4067 pinoutThe power supply for the part is applied to pin 24, and GND to … pin 12. Pin 15 is used to turn the control the current flow through the inputs/outputs – if this is connected to Vcc the IC stops flow, and when connected to GND it allows flow. You can always control this with a digital output pin if required, or just tie it to GND if this doesn’t matter.

Next – pin one. This is where the current either flows in to be sent to one of the sixteen outputs – or where the current flows out from one of the sixteen inputs. The sixteen inputs/outputs are labelled I0~I15. Finally there are the four control pins – labelled S0~S3. By setting these HIGH or LOW (Vcc or GND) you can control which I/O pins the current flow is directed through. So how does that work? Once again – reach for the the data sheet and review the following table:

74HC4067 truth tableNot only does it show what happens when pin 15 is set to HIGH (i.e. nothing) it shows what combination of HIGH and LOW for the control pins are required to select which I/O pin the current will flow through. If you scroll down a bit hopefully you noticed that the combination of S0~S3 is in fact the binary equivalent of the pin number – with the least significant bit first. For example, to select pin 9 (9 in binary is 1001) you set the IC pins S0 and S3 to HIGH, and S1 and S2 to LOW. How you control those control pins is of course up to you – either with some digital logic circuit for your application or as mentioned earlier with a microcontroller.

Limitations 

Apart from the power supply requirements, there are a few limitations to keep in mind. Open you data sheet and consider the “DC Electrical Specifications” table. The first two parameters show what the minimum voltage that can be considered as a HIGH and the maximum for a LOW depending on your supply voltage. The next item of interest is the “ON” resistance – that is the resistance in Ohms (Ω) between one of the sixteen inputs/outputs and the common pin. When a channel is active, and a 5V supply voltage, we measured a resistance of 56Ω without a load through that channel – and the data sheet shows other values depending on the current load and supply voltage. Finally, don’t try and run more than 25 mA of current through a pin.

Examples

Now to show an example of both multiplexing and demultiplexing. For demonstration purposes we’re using an Arduino Uno-compatible board with the 74HC4067 running from a 5V supply voltage. Pin 15 of the ’4067 is set to GND, and control pins S0~S3 are connected to Arduino digital output pins D7~D4 respectively.

Multiplexing

This is where we select one input pin of sixteen and allow current to flow through to the common pin (1). In this example we connect the common pin to the board’s analog input pin – so this can be used as a method of reading sixteen analog signals (one at a time) using only one ADC. When doing so – take note of the limitations mentioned earlier – take some resistance measurements in your situation to determine what the maximum value will be from your ADC and calibrate code accordingly.

With both of the examples we’ll use port manipulation to control the digital pins which are connected to the 74HC4067′s control pins. We do this as it reduces the code required and conceptually I feel it’s easier. For example – to select I/O 15 you need to turn on all the control pins – so you just have to set Arduino PORTD to B11110000 (which is binary 15 LSB first) and much neater than using four digitalWrite() functions.

In the following example sketch, you can see how we’ve put the binary values for each control possibility in the array byte controlPins[] – which is then used to set the pins easily in void loop().

This simply sets each input pin in turn, then reads the ADC value into an array – whose values are then sent to the serial monitor:

// 74HC4067 multiplexer demonstration (16 to 1)

// control pins output table in array form
// see truth table on page 2 of TI 74HC4067 data sheet
// connect 74HC4067 S0~S3 to Arduino D7~D4 respectively
// connect 74HC4067 pin 1 to Arduino A0
byte controlPins[] = {B00000000, 
                  B10000000,
                  B01000000,
                  B11000000,
                  B00100000,
                  B10100000,
                  B01100000,
                  B11100000,
                  B00010000,
                  B10010000,
                  B01010000,
                  B11010000,
                  B00110000,
                  B10110000,
                  B01110000,
                  B11110000 }; 

// holds incoming values from 74HC4067                  
byte muxValues[] = {0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,};

void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  DDRD = B11111111; // set PORTD (digital 7~0) to outputs
}

void setPin(int outputPin)
// function to select pin on 74HC4067
{
  PORTD = controlPins[outputPin];
}

void displayData()
// dumps captured data from array to serial monitor
{
  Serial.println();
  Serial.println("Values from multiplexer:");
  Serial.println("========================");
  for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++)
  {
    Serial.print("input I"); 
    Serial.print(i); 
    Serial.print(" = "); 
    Serial.println(muxValues[i]);
  }
  Serial.println("========================");  
}

void loop()
{
  for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++)
  {
    setPin(i); // choose an input pin on the 74HC4067
    muxValues[i]=analogRead(0); // read the vlaue on that pin and store in array
  }

  // display captured data
  displayData();
  delay(2000); 
}

… and a quick video of the results:

Demultiplexing

Now for the opposite function – sending current from the common pin to one of sixteen outputs. A fast example of this is by controlling one of sixteen LEDs each connected to an output pin, and with 5V on the 74HC4067 common pin. We don’t need current-limiting resistors for the LEDs due to the internal resistance in the 74HC4067. Here’s the sketch:

// 74HC4067 demultiplexer demonstration (1 to 16)

// control pins output table in array form
// see truth table on page 2 of TI 74HC4067 data sheet
// connect 74HC4067 S0~S3 to Arduino D7~D4 respectively
// 5V to 74HC4067 pin 1 to power the LEDs :)
byte controlPins[] = {B00000000, 
                      B10000000,
                      B01000000,
                      B11000000,
                      B00100000,
                      B10100000,
                      B01100000,
                      B11100000,
                      B00010000,
                      B10010000,
                      B01010000,
                      B11010000,
                      B00110000,
                      B10110000,
                      B01110000,
                      B11110000 }; 

void setup()
{
  DDRD = B11111111; // set PORTD (digital 7~0) to outputs
}

void setPin(int outputPin)
// function to select pin on 74HC4067
{
  PORTD = controlPins[outputPin];
}

void loop()
{
  for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++)
  {
    setPin(i);
    delay(250);
  }
}

… and the LEDs in action:

Conclusion

If you’re considering the 74HC4067 or hadn’t known about it previously, we hope you found this of interest. If you have any questions please leave them below or privately via the contact page. And if you made it this far – check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

 

The post Tutorial – 74HC4067 16-Channel Analog Multiplexer Demultiplexer appeared first on tronixstuff.

Hello readers

Today we are going to examine the 74HC238 decoder/demultiplexer IC. My reason for writing this was to examine another way to get more output pins when using an Arduino or compatible board. However you can use any combination of three logic lines to turn on or off eight mutually exclusive outputs. How? Let’s find out…

First of all, here is the IC:

It is also available in SO16, SSOP16,  TSSOP16 and DHVQFN16 packages. What? Here is a good list of various SMD packaging types. Although my sample is from NXP, a quick search shows it is also made by Texas Instruments and ST Microelectronics. Here is the NXP data sheet.

The pin layout is very simple, apart from +5V and ground, you have six pins that control the outputs, and eight output pins, however in reality you only need to control three from the microcontroller or other logic lines. Here is the pinout diagram:

To get the output pins high, you use a combination of levels on pins A0~A2 and possibly E3. If you leave E3 low, no outputs can be set to high. The input combination required for each output is described in this table from the data sheet (click to enlarge):

Notice that columns with an X can be set either high or low, but you must not leave them floating, so always connect or set an X to high or low. If you need to have active low outputs (that is, outputs are high instead of low), there is the 74HC138. So now to do this in real life! Here is a demonstration schematic to use the 74HC238 with an Arduino Duemilanove or 100% compatible board:


… and in real life:

And here is a demonstration video, using this arduino sketch: 74HC238Arduino.pdf

Question: In real life, in which country is the Hoff a popular singer?

As with most other ICs of this type, you can only source 25 milliamps of current from each output, so if you need more you will have to consider the use of a switching NPN transistor etc. Although only one output can be high at a time, if you scan them quick enough, you can create the illusion that all are on at once (as in the video). Apart from LEDs and other items, you could use this IC to control stepper motors or even create a safeworking environment on a model train layout.

To conclude, the 74HC238 offers one of several ways to control more things with less control pins. Ideal for mutually exclusive outputs, however if you needed more than one high at once, the 74HC595 shift register would be the better solution. (See here for a 74HC595 tutorial).

As always, avoid the risk of counterfeit ICs and get yours from a reputable distributor. Living in Australia, mine came from Little Bird Electronics.

Once again, thank you for reading and I look forward to your comments and so on. Furthermore, don’t be shy in pointing out errors or places that could use improvement. Please subscribe using one of the methods at the top-right of this web page to receive updates on new posts. Or join our new Google Group. High resolution photos are available on flickr.

Otherwise, have fun, be good to each other – and make something! :)



  • Newsletter

    Sign up for the PlanetArduino Newsletter, which delivers the most popular articles via e-mail to your inbox every week. Just fill in the information below and submit.

  • Like Us on Facebook