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Nov
22

Old Kit Review – Silicon Chip Mini Stereo Amplifier

amplifier, dick, DSE, Electronics, k5008, kit, kit review, review, smith, stereo, stmicro, TDA2822, tronixstuff Commenti disabilitati su Old Kit Review – Silicon Chip Mini Stereo Amplifier 

Introduction

In this review of an older kit we examine the aptly-named “Mini Stereo Amplifier” from Dick Smith Electronics (catalogue number K5008), based on the article published in the October 1992 issue of Silicon Chip magazine.

The purpose of the kit is to offer a stereo 1W+1W amplifier for use with portable audio devices that only used headphones, such as the typical portable tape players or newly available portable CD players. I feel old just writing that. At the time it would have been quite a useful kit, paired with some inexpensive speakers the end user would have a neat and portable sound solution. So let’s get started.

Assembly

Larger kits like this one that couldn’t be retailed on hanger cards shipped in corrugated cardboard boxes that were glued shut. They looked good but as soon as a sneaky customer tore one open “to have a look” it was ruined and hard to sell:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit box

The amplifier kit was from the time when DSE still cared about kits, so you received the sixteen page “Guide to Kit Construction” plus the kit instructions, nasty red disclaimer sheet, feedback card, plus all the required components and the obligatory coil of solder that was usually rubbish:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit all contents

However the completeness of the kit is outstanding, everything is included for completion including an enclosure and handy front panel sticker:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit enclosure face sticker

… all the sockets, plenty of jumper wire and even the rubber feet:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit components

The PCB is from the old-school of design – without any silk-screening or solder mask:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit PCB front

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit PCB rear

However the instructions are quite clear so you can figure out the component placement easily. Which brings us to that point – all the components went in with ease:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit PCB partial assembly

… then it was a matter of wiring in the sockets, volume potentiometer and power switch:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit socket wiring

Instead of using a 3.5mm phono socket for power input, I used a 9V battery snap instead. The amplifier can run on voltages down to 1.8V so it will do for the limited use I have in mind for the amplifier. However in the excitement of assembly I forgot the power switch:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit PCB forgot the switch

However it wasn’t any effort to rectify that. You will also notice three links on the PCB, which I fitted instead of making coils (more on this later). So at that point the soldering work is finished:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit PCB finished

Now to drill out the holes on the faceplate. Instead of tapering out the slots on the side of the housing, I just drilled all the holes on the front panel:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit panel

Turns out the adhesive on the front panel sticker had lost its mojo, so I might head off and get some white-on-black tape for the label maker. However in the meanwhile we have one finished mini stereo amplifier, which reminds me of an old grade seven electronics project:

Dick Smith Electronics K5008 Stereo Amplifier Kit finished

How it works

The amplifier is based on the STMicro TDA2822M (data sheet .pdf) dual low-voltage amplifier IC. In fact the circuit is a slight modification of the stereo example in the data sheet. As mentioned earlier, the benefit of this IC is that it can operate on voltates down to 1.8V, however to reach the maximum power output of 1W per channel into 8Ω loads you need a 9V supply. The output will drop to around 300 mW at 6V.

Finally the Silicon Chip design calls for a triplet of coils, one each on the stereo input wires – used to prevent the RF signal being “shunted away” from the amplifier inputs. The idea behind that was some portable radios used the headphones as an antenna, however we’ll use it with the audio out from a mobile phone so it was easier to skip hand-winding the coils and just put links in the PCB.

Using the Amplifier

The purpose of this kit was to have some sound while working in the garage, so I’ve fitted a pair of cheap 1W 8Ω speakers each to a length of wire and a 3.5mm plug as shown in the image above. And for that purpose, it works very well.

Conclusion

Another kit review over. This is a genuinely useful kit and a real shame you can’t buy one today. And again – to those who have been asking me privately, no I don’t have a secret line to some underground warehouse of old kits – just keep an eye out on ebay as they pop up now and again. Full-sized images and much more information about the kit are available on flickr.

And while you’re here – are you interested in Arduino? Check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Old Kit Review – Silicon Chip Mini Stereo Amplifier appeared first on tronixstuff.

Nov
19

Arduino Tutorials – Chapter 15 – RFID

125 kHz, access, arduino, EM4100, lesson, RDM630, rfid, RFR101A1M, RFR103B2B, seeedstudio, system, tronixstuff, TTL, tutorial Commenti disabilitati su Arduino Tutorials – Chapter 15 – RFID 

Learn how to use RFID readers with your Arduino. In this instalment we use an RDM630 or RDM6300 RFID reader. If you have an Innovations ID-12 or ID-20 RFID reader, we have a different tutorial for you.

This is chapter fifteen of our huge Arduino tutorial seriesUpdated 19/11/2013

Introduction

RFID – radio frequency identification. Some of us have already used these things, and they have become part of everyday life. For example, with electronic vehicle tolling, door access control, public transport fare systems and so on. It sounds complex – but isn’t.

To explain RFID for the layperson, we can use a key and lock analogy. Instead of the key having a unique pattern, RFID keys hold a series of unique numbers which are read by the lock. It is up to our Arduino sketch to determine what happens when the number is read by the lock.  The key is the tag, card or other small device we carry around or have in our vehicles. We will be using a passive key, which is an integrated circuit and a small aerial. This uses power from a magnetic field associated with the lock. Here are some key or tag examples:

Arduino RFID tags

In this tutorial we’ll be using 125 kHz tags – for example. To continue with the analogy our lock is a small circuit board and a loop aerial. This has the capability to read the data on the IC of our key, and some locks can even write data to keys. Here is our reader (lock) example:

Seeedstudio RFID reader Arduino

These readers are quite small and inexpensive – however the catch is that the loop aerial is somewhat fragile. If you need something much sturdier, consider the ID20 tags used in the other RFID tutorial.

Setting up the RFID reader

This is a short exercise to check the reader works and communicates with the Arduino. You will need:

Simply insert the RFID reader main board into a solderless breadboard as shown below. Then use jumper wires to connect the second and third pins at the top-left of the RFID board to Arduino 5V and GND respectively. The RFID coil connects to the two pins on the top-right (they can go either way). Finally, connect a jumper wire from the bottom-left pin of the RFID board to Arduino digital pin 2:

Arduino RFID reader setup

Next, upload the following sketch to your Arduino and open the serial monitor window in the IDE:

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial RFID(2, 3); // RX and TX

int i;

void setup()
{
  RFID.begin(9600);    // start serial to RFID reader
  Serial.begin(9600);  // start serial to PC 
}

void loop()
{
  if (RFID.available() > 0) 
  {
     i = RFID.read();
     Serial.print(i, DEC);
     Serial.print(" ");
  }
}

If you’re wondering why we used SoftwareSerial – if you connect the data line from the RFID board to the Arduino’s RX pin – you need to remove it when updating sketches, so this is more convenient.

Now start waving RFID cards or tags over the coil. You will find that they need to be parallel over the coil, and not too far away. You can experiment with covering the coil to simulate it being installed behind protective surfaces and so on. Watch this short video which shows the resulting RFID card or tag data being displayed in the Arduino IDE serial monitor.

As you can see from the example video, the reader returns the card’s unique ID number which starts with a 2 and ends with a 3. While you have the sketch operating, read the numbers from your RFID tags and note them down, you will need them for future sketches.

To do anything with the card data, we need to create some functions to retrieve the card number when it is read and place in an array for comparison against existing card data (e.g. a list of accepted cards) so your systems will know who to accept and who to deny. Using those functions, you can then make your own access system, time-logging device and so on.

Let’s demonstrate an example of this. It will check if a card presented to the reader is on an “accepted” list, and if so light a green LED, otherwise light a red LED. Use the hardware from the previous sketch, but add a typical green and red LED with 560 ohm resistor to digital pins 13 and 12 respectively. Then upload the following sketch:

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial RFID(2, 3); // RX and TX

int data1 = 0;
int ok = -1;
int yes = 13;
int no = 12;

// use first sketch in http://wp.me/p3LK05-3Gk to get your tag numbers
int tag1[14] = {2,52,48,48,48,56,54,66,49,52,70,51,56,3};
int tag2[14] = {2,52,48,48,48,56,54,67,54,54,66,54,66,3};
int newtag[14] = { 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0}; // used for read comparisons

void setup()
{
  RFID.begin(9600);    // start serial to RFID reader
  Serial.begin(9600);  // start serial to PC 
  pinMode(yes, OUTPUT); // for status LEDs
  pinMode(no, OUTPUT);
}

boolean comparetag(int aa[14], int bb[14])
{
  boolean ff = false;
  int fg = 0;
  for (int cc = 0 ; cc < 14 ; cc++)
  {
    if (aa[cc] == bb[cc])
    {
      fg++;
    }
  }
  if (fg == 14)
  {
    ff = true;
  }
  return ff;
}

void checkmytags() // compares each tag against the tag just read
{
  ok = 0; // this variable helps decision-making,
  // if it is 1 we have a match, zero is a read but no match,
  // -1 is no read attempt made
  if (comparetag(newtag, tag1) == true)
  {
    ok++;
  }
  if (comparetag(newtag, tag2) == true)
  {
    ok++;
  }
}

void readTags()
{
  ok = -1;

  if (RFID.available() > 0) 
  {
    // read tag numbers
    delay(100); // needed to allow time for the data to come in from the serial buffer.

    for (int z = 0 ; z < 14 ; z++) // read the rest of the tag
    {
      data1 = RFID.read();
      newtag[z] = data1;
    }
    RFID.flush(); // stops multiple reads

    // do the tags match up?
    checkmytags();
  }

  // now do something based on tag type
  if (ok > 0) // if we had a match
  {
    Serial.println("Accepted");
    digitalWrite(yes, HIGH);
    delay(1000);
    digitalWrite(yes, LOW);

    ok = -1;
  }
  else if (ok == 0) // if we didn't have a match
  {
    Serial.println("Rejected");
    digitalWrite(no, HIGH);
    delay(1000);
    digitalWrite(no, LOW);

    ok = -1;
  }
}

void loop()
{
  readTags();
}

In the sketch we have a few functions that take care of reading and comparing RFID tags. Notice that the allowed tag numbers are listed at the top of the sketch, you can always add your own and more – as long as you add them to the list in the function checkmytags() which determines if the card being read is allowed or to be denied.

The function readTags() takes care of the actual reading of the tags/cards, by placing the currently-read tag number into an array which is them used in the comparison function checkmytags(). Then the LEDs are illuminated depending on the status of the tag at the reader. You can watch a quick demonstration of this example in this short video.

 

Conclusion

After working through this chapter you should now have a good foundation of knowledge on using the inexpensive RFID readers and how to call functions when a card is successfully read. For example, use some extra hardware (such as an N-MOSFET) to control a door strike, buzzer, etc. Now it’s up to you to use them as a form of input with various access systems, tracking the movement of people or things and much more.

And if you enjoyed the tutorial, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

tronixstuff

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Arduino Tutorials – Chapter 15 – RFID appeared first on tronixstuff.

Nov
18

Kit Review – Altronics 3 Digit Counter Module

4029, 4511, altronics, CMOS, counter, digit, digital, Electronics, K2505, kit, kit review, LED, review, three, tronixstuff Commenti disabilitati su Kit Review – Altronics 3 Digit Counter Module 

Introduction

In this review we examine the three digit counter module kit from Altronics. The purpose of this kit is to allow you to … count things. You feed it a pulse, which it counts on the rising edge of the signal. You can have it count up or down, and each kit includes three digits.

You can add more digits, in groups of three with a maximum of thirty digits. Plus it’s based on simple digital electronics (no microcontrollers here) so there’s some learning afoot as well. Designed by Graham Cattley the kit was first described in the now-defunct (thanks Graham) January 1998 issue of Electronics Australia magazine.

Assembly

The kit arrives in the typical retail fashion:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

And includes the magazine article reprint along with Altronics’ “electronics reference sheet” which covers many useful topics such as resistor colour codes, various formulae, PCB track widths, pinouts and more. There is also a small addendum which uses two extra (and included) diodes for input protection on the clock signal:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit instructions

The counter is ideally designed to be mounted inside an enclosure of your own choosing, so everything required to build a working counter is included however that’s it:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit parts

No IC sockets, however I decided to live dangerously and not use them – the ICs are common and easily found. The PCBs have a good solder mask and silk screen:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit PCBs

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit PCBs rear

With four PCBs (one each for a digit control and one for the displays) the best way to start was to get the common parts out of the way and fitted, such as the current-limiting resistors, links, ICs, capacitors and the display module. The supplied current-limiting resistors are for use with a 9V DC supply, however details for other values are provided in the instructions:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

At this point you put one of the control boards aside, and then start fitting the other two to the display board. This involves holding the two at ninety degrees then soldering the PCB pads to the SIL pins on the back of the display board. Starting with the control board for the hundreds digit first:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

… at this stage you can power the board for a quick test:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

… then fit the other control board for the tens digit and repeat:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

Now it’s time to work with the third control board. This one looks after the one’s column and also a few features of the board. Several functions such as display blanking, latch (freeze the display while still counting) and gate (start or stop counting) can be controlled and require resistors fitted to this board which are detailed in the instructions.

Finally, several lengths of wire (included) are soldered to this board so that they can run through the other two to carry signals such as 5V, GND, latch, reset, gate and so on:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

These wires can then be pulled through and soldered to the matching pads once the last board has been soldered to the display board:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

 You also need to run separate wires between the carry-out and clock-in pins between the digit control boards (the curved ones between the PCBs):

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

For real-life use you also need some robust connections for the power, clock, reset lines, etc., however for demonstration use I just used alligator clips. Once completed a quick power-up showed the LEDs all working:

Altronics K2505 Counter Module Kit

How it works

Each digit is driven by a common IC pairing – the  4029 (data sheet) is a presettable up/down counter with a BCD (binary-coded decimal) output which feeds a 4511 (data sheet) that converts the BCD signal into outputs for a 7-segment LED display. You can count at any readable speed, and I threw a 2 kHz square-wave at the counter and it didn’t miss a beat. By default the units count upwards, however by setting one pin on the board LOW you can count downwards.

Operation

Using the counters is a simple matter of connecting power, the signal to count and deciding upon display blanking and the direction of counting. Here’s a quick video of counting up, and here it is counting back down.

Conclusion

This is a neat kit that can be used to count pulses from almost anything. Although some care needs to be taken when soldering, this isn’t anything that cannot be overcome without a little patience and diligence. So if you need to count something, get one ore more of these kits from Altronics. Full-sized images are available on flickr. And while you’re here – are you interested in Arduino? Check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press – also shortly available from Altronics.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Kit Review – Altronics 3 Digit Counter Module appeared first on tronixstuff.

Nov
13

Book – “Arduino Workshop – A Hands-On Introduction with 65 Projects”

arduino, Arduino Workshop, book, boxall, discount, john, lesson, no, press, starch, tronixstuff, tutorial, workshop Commenti disabilitati su Book – “Arduino Workshop – A Hands-On Introduction with 65 Projects” 

Over the last few years you may have noticed a few of my Arduino tutorials, and during this time many people have mentioned that I should write a book. And now thanks to the team from No Starch Press this recommendation has morphed into my book – “Arduino Workshop“:

Arduino Workshop book

Now into the third print run, “Arduino Workshop” is one of the few books on the market that can take the reader from zero knowledge to understanding the Arduino development platform, and working with a huge array of add-ons and technologies. And a huge “thank you” to all those who have purchased and supported the book so far.

Arduino Workshop” offers a professionally-edited and curated path for the beginner to learn with and have fun. It’s a hands-on introduction to Arduino with 65 projects – from simple LED use right through to RFID, Internet connection, wireless data, working with cellular communications, and much more. Plus the reader also learns about electronics, good coding and other interesting topics.

Arduino_Workshop_GPS

Each project is explained in detail, explaining how the hardware and Arduino code works together. Plus we teach you how to read and understand circuit schematics and use this clear method of describing circuits which prepares the read for further electronics learning.

Arduino Workshop piezo

The reader doesn’t need any expensive tools or workspaces, and all the parts used are available from almost any electronics retailer. Furthermore all of the projects can be finished without soldering, so it’s safe for readers of all ages.

The editing team at No Starch Press, our technical editor Marc Alexander and myself have worked hard to make the book perfect for those without any electronics or Arduino experience at all, and it makes a great gift for someone to get them started. After working through the 65 projects the reader will have gained enough knowledge and confidence to create many things – and to continue researching on their own. Or if you’ve been enjoying the results of my thousands of hours of work here at tronixstuff, you can show your appreciation by ordering a copy for yourself or as a gift. If you’re still not sure, review the table of contents, index and download a sample chapter from the Arduino Workshop website.

Finally – between now and the end of the year, you can get a 30% discount from No Starch by using the coupon code “tronixstuff” – and this still includes the DRM-free eBooks. 

Arduino Workshop is available from No Starch Press in printed or DRM-free eBook (PDF, Mobi, and ePub) formats. And the eBooks are also included with the printed orders so you can get started immediately.

tronixstuff

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Book – “Arduino Workshop – A Hands-On Introduction with 65 Projects” appeared first on tronixstuff.

Nov
11

Tutorial – Google Docs and the Arduino Yún

arduino, Docs, DS3232, google, Google Docs, iot, lesson, review, spreadsheet, temboo, tronixstuff, tutorial, wifi, Yun Commenti disabilitati su Tutorial – Google Docs and the Arduino Yún 

Introduction

This is the second in a series of tutorials examining various uses of the Arduino Yún. In this article we’ll examine how your Arduino Yún can send data that it captures from the analogue and digital inputs and a real-time clock IC to an online Google Docs spreadsheet. Doing so gives you a neat and inexpensive method of capturing data in real-time and having the ability to analyse the data from almost anywhere, and export it with very little effort.

Getting Started

If you haven’t already done so, ensure your Arduino Yún can connect to your network via WiFi or cable – and get a Temboo account (we run through this here). And you need (at the time of writing) IDE version 1.5.4 which can be downloaded from the Arduino website. Finally, you will need a Google account, so if you don’t have one – sign up here.

Arduino Yun Yún front

Testing the Arduino Yún-Google Docs connection

In this first example we’ll run through the sketch provided by Temboo so you can confirm everything works as it should. First of all, create a spreadsheet in Google Docs. Call it “ArduinoData” and label the first two columns as “time” and “sensor”, as shown in the screen shot below:

Arduino Yun Google Docs Spreadsheet

Always label the required columns. You can call them whatever you need. For new Google users, the URL shown in my example will be different to yours. Next, copy the following sketch to the IDE:

/*
  SendDataToGoogleSpreadsheet

  Demonstrates appending a row of data to a Google spreadsheet from the Arduino Yun 
  using the Temboo Arduino Yun SDK.  

  This example code is in the public domain.

*/

#include <Bridge.h>
#include <Temboo.h>
#include "TembooAccount.h" // contains Temboo account information

/*** SUBSTITUTE YOUR VALUES BELOW: ***/

// Note that for additional security and reusability, you could
// use #define statements to specify these values in a .h file.

const String GOOGLE_USERNAME = "your-google-username";
const String GOOGLE_PASSWORD = "your-google-password";

// the title of the spreadsheet you want to send data to
// (Note that this must actually be the title of a Google spreadsheet
// that exists in your Google Drive/Docs account, and is configured
// as described above.)
const String SPREADSHEET_TITLE = "your-spreadsheet-title";

const unsigned long RUN_INTERVAL_MILLIS = 60000; // how often to run the Choreo (in milliseconds)

// the last time we ran the Choreo 
// (initialized to 60 seconds ago so the
// Choreo is run immediately when we start up)
unsigned long lastRun = (unsigned long)-60000;

void setup() {

  // for debugging, wait until a serial console is connected
  Serial.begin(9600);
  delay(4000);
  while(!Serial);

  Serial.print("Initializing the bridge...");
  Bridge.begin();
  Serial.println("Done");
}

void loop()
{
  // get the number of milliseconds this sketch has been running
  unsigned long now = millis();

  // run again if it's been 60 seconds since we last ran
  if (now - lastRun >= RUN_INTERVAL_MILLIS) {

    // remember 'now' as the last time we ran the choreo
    lastRun = now;

    Serial.println("Getting sensor value...");

    // get the value we want to append to our spreadsheet
    unsigned long sensorValue = getSensorValue();

    Serial.println("Appending value to spreadsheet...");

    // we need a Process object to send a Choreo request to Temboo
    TembooChoreo AppendRowChoreo;

    // invoke the Temboo client
    // NOTE that the client must be reinvoked and repopulated with
    // appropriate arguments each time its run() method is called.
    AppendRowChoreo.begin();

    // set Temboo account credentials
    AppendRowChoreo.setAccountName(TEMBOO_ACCOUNT);
    AppendRowChoreo.setAppKeyName(TEMBOO_APP_KEY_NAME);
    AppendRowChoreo.setAppKey(TEMBOO_APP_KEY);

    // identify the Temboo Library choreo to run (Google > Spreadsheets > AppendRow)
    AppendRowChoreo.setChoreo("/Library/Google/Spreadsheets/AppendRow");

    // set the required Choreo inputs
    // see https://www.temboo.com/library/Library/Google/Spreadsheets/AppendRow/ 
    // for complete details about the inputs for this Choreo

    // your Google username (usually your email address)
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("Username", GOOGLE_USERNAME);

    // your Google account password
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("Password", GOOGLE_PASSWORD);

    // the title of the spreadsheet you want to append to
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("SpreadsheetTitle", SPREADSHEET_TITLE);

    // convert the time and sensor values to a comma separated string
    String rowData(now);
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += sensorValue;

    // add the RowData input item
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("RowData", rowData);

    // run the Choreo and wait for the results
    // The return code (returnCode) will indicate success or failure 
    unsigned int returnCode = AppendRowChoreo.run();

    // return code of zero (0) means success
    if (returnCode == 0) {
      Serial.println("Success! Appended " + rowData);
      Serial.println("");
    } else {
      // return code of anything other than zero means failure  
      // read and display any error messages
      while (AppendRowChoreo.available()) {
        char c = AppendRowChoreo.read();
        Serial.print(c);
      }
    }

    AppendRowChoreo.close();
  }
}

// this function simulates reading the value of a sensor 
unsigned long getSensorValue() {
  return analogRead(A0);
}

Now look for the following two lines in the sketch:

const String GOOGLE_USERNAME = "your-google-username";
const String GOOGLE_PASSWORD = "your-google-password";

This is where you put your Google account username and password. For example, if your Google account is “CI5@gmail.com” and password “RS2000Escort” the two lines will be:

const String GOOGLE_USERNAME = "CI5@gmail.com";
const String GOOGLE_PASSWORD = "RS2000Escort";

Next, you need to insert the spreadsheet name in the sketch. Look for the following line:

const String SPREADSHEET_TITLE = "your-spreadsheet-title";

and change your-spreadsheet-title to ArduinoData. 

Finally, create your header file by copying the the header file data from here (after logging to Temboo) into a text file and saving it with the name TembooAccount.h in the same folder as your sketch from above. You know this has been successful when opening the sketch, as you will see the header file in a second tab, for example:

Arduino Yun sketch header file

Finally, save and upload your sketch to the Arduino Yún. After a moment or two it will send values to the spreadsheet, and repeat this every sixty seconds – for example:

Arduino Yun Google Docs Spreadsheet data

If your Yún is connected via USB you can also watch the status via the serial monitor.

 One really super-cool and convenient feature of using Google Docs is that you can access it from almost anywhere. Desktop, tablet, mobile… and it updates in real-time:

Arduino Yun_ Google Docs Spreadsheet_data_mobile

So with your Yún you can capture data and view it from anywhere you can access the Internet. Now let’s do just that.

Sending your own data from the Arduino Yún to a Google Docs Spreadsheet

In this example we’ll demonstrate sending three types of data:

With these types of data you should be able to represent all manner of things. We use the RTC as the time and date from it will match when the data was captured, not when the data was written to the spreadsheet. If you don’t have a DS3232 you can also use a DS1307.

If you’re not familiar with these parts and the required code please review this tutorial. When connecting your RTC – please note that SDA (data) is D2 and SCL (clock) is D3 on the Yún.

The sketch for this example is a modified version of the previous sketch, except we have more data to send. The data is captured into variables from the line:

// get the values from A0 to A3 and D7, D8

You can send whatever data you like, as long as it is all appended to a String by the name of rowdata. When you want to use a new column in the spreadsheet, simply append a comma “,” between the data in the string. In other words, you’re creating a string of CSV (comma-separated values) data. You can see this process happen from the line that has the comment:

// CSV creation starts here!

in the example sketch that follows shortly. Finally, you can alter the update rate of the sketch – it’s set to every 60 seconds, however you can change this by altering the 60000 (milliseconds) in the following line:

const unsigned long RUN_INTERVAL_MILLIS = 60000;

Don’t forget that each update costs you a call and some data from your Temboo account – you only get so many for free then you have to pay for more. Check your Temboo account for more details.

So without further ado, the following sketch will write the values read from A0~A3, the status of D7 and D8 (1 for HIGH, 0 for LOW) along with the current date and time to the spreadsheet. Don’t forget to update the password, username and so on as you did for the first example sketch:

#include <Bridge.h>
#include <Temboo.h>
#include "TembooAccount.h" // contains Temboo account information
#include "Wire.h"
#define DS3232_I2C_ADDRESS 0x68

unsigned long analog0, analog1, analog2, analog3;
int digital7 = 7;
int digital8 = 8;
boolean d7, d8;
byte second, minute, hour, dayOfWeek, dayOfMonth, month, year; // for RTC

const String GOOGLE_USERNAME = "your-google-username";
const String GOOGLE_PASSWORD = "your-google-password";
const String SPREADSHEET_TITLE = "your-spreadsheet-title";

// update interval in milliseconds (every minute would be 60000)
const unsigned long RUN_INTERVAL_MILLIS = 60000; 
unsigned long lastRun = (unsigned long)-60000;

void setup() 
{
  // activate I2C bus
  Wire.begin();  
  // for debugging, wait until a serial console is connected
  Serial.begin(9600);
  delay(4000);
  while(!Serial);
  Serial.print("Initializing the bridge...");
  Bridge.begin();
  Serial.println("Done");
  // Set up digital inputs to monitor
  pinMode(digital7, INPUT);
  pinMode(digital8, INPUT);
}

// for RTC
// Convert normal decimal numbers to binary coded decimal
byte decToBcd(byte val)
{
  return ( (val/10*16) + (val%10) );
}

// Convert binary coded decimal to normal decimal numbers
byte bcdToDec(byte val)
{
  return ( (val/16*10) + (val%16) );
}

void readDS3232time(byte *second, 
byte *minute, 
byte *hour, 
byte *dayOfWeek, 
byte *dayOfMonth, 
byte *month, 
byte *year)
{
  Wire.beginTransmission(DS3232_I2C_ADDRESS);
  Wire.write(0); // set DS3232 register pointer to 00h
  Wire.endTransmission();  
  Wire.requestFrom(DS3232_I2C_ADDRESS, 7); // request 7 bytes of data from DS3232 starting from register 00h
  // A few of these need masks because certain bits are control bits
  *second     = bcdToDec(Wire.read() & 0x7f);
  *minute     = bcdToDec(Wire.read());
  *hour       = bcdToDec(Wire.read() & 0x3f);  // Need to change this if 12 hour am/pm
  *dayOfWeek  = bcdToDec(Wire.read());
  *dayOfMonth = bcdToDec(Wire.read());
  *month      = bcdToDec(Wire.read());
  *year       = bcdToDec(Wire.read());
}

void setDS3232time(byte second, byte minute, byte hour, byte dayOfWeek, byte dayOfMonth, byte month, byte year)
// sets time and date data to DS3232
{
  Wire.beginTransmission(DS3232_I2C_ADDRESS);  
  Wire.write(0); // sends 00h - seconds register
  Wire.write(decToBcd(second));     // set seconds
  Wire.write(decToBcd(minute));     // set minutes
  Wire.write(decToBcd(hour));       // set hours
  Wire.write(decToBcd(dayOfWeek));  // set day of week (1=Sunday, 7=Saturday)
  Wire.write(decToBcd(dayOfMonth)); // set date (1~31)
  Wire.write(decToBcd(month));      // set month
  Wire.write(decToBcd(year));       // set year (0~99)
  Wire.endTransmission();
}

void loop()
{
  // get the number of milliseconds this sketch has been running
  unsigned long now = millis();

  // run again if it's been 60 seconds since we last ran
  if (now - lastRun >= RUN_INTERVAL_MILLIS) {

    // remember 'now' as the last time we ran the choreo
    lastRun = now;
    Serial.println("Getting sensor values...");
    // get the values from A0 to A3 and D7, D8
    analog0 = analogRead(0);
    analog1 = analogRead(1);
    analog2 = analogRead(2);
    analog3 = analogRead(3);
    d7 = digitalRead(digital7);
    d8 = digitalRead(digital8);

    Serial.println("Appending value to spreadsheet...");
    // we need a Process object to send a Choreo request to Temboo
    TembooChoreo AppendRowChoreo;

    // invoke the Temboo client
    // NOTE that the client must be reinvoked and repopulated with
    // appropriate arguments each time its run() method is called.
    AppendRowChoreo.begin();

    // set Temboo account credentials
    AppendRowChoreo.setAccountName(TEMBOO_ACCOUNT);
    AppendRowChoreo.setAppKeyName(TEMBOO_APP_KEY_NAME);
    AppendRowChoreo.setAppKey(TEMBOO_APP_KEY);

    // identify the Temboo Library choreo to run (Google > Spreadsheets > AppendRow)
    AppendRowChoreo.setChoreo("/Library/Google/Spreadsheets/AppendRow");
    // your Google username (usually your email address)
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("Username", GOOGLE_USERNAME);
    // your Google account password
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("Password", GOOGLE_PASSWORD);
    // the title of the spreadsheet you want to append to
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("SpreadsheetTitle", SPREADSHEET_TITLE);

    // get time and date from RTC
    readDS3232time(&second, &minute, &hour, &dayOfWeek, &dayOfMonth, &month, &year);

    // smoosh all the sensor, date and time data into a String
    // CSV creation starts here!
    String rowData(analog0);
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += analog1;
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += analog2;
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += analog3;
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += d7;
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += d8;    
    rowData += ",";
    // insert date
    rowData += dayOfMonth; 
    rowData += "/";
    rowData += month; 
    rowData += "/20";
    rowData += year; 
    rowData += ",";    
    // insert time    
    rowData += hour;  
    if (minute<10)
    {
        rowData += "0";  
    }    
    rowData += minute; 
    rowData += "."; 
    if (second<10)
    {
        rowData += "0";  
    }    
    rowData += second; 
    rowData += "h";     

    // add the RowData input item
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("RowData", rowData);

    // run the Choreo and wait for the results
    // The return code (returnCode) will indicate success or failure 
    unsigned int returnCode = AppendRowChoreo.run();

    // return code of zero (0) means success
    if (returnCode == 0) {
      Serial.println("Success! Appended " + rowData);
      Serial.println("");
    } else {
      // return code of anything other than zero means failure  
      // read and display any error messages
      while (AppendRowChoreo.available()) {
        char c = AppendRowChoreo.read();
        Serial.print(c);
      }
    }
    AppendRowChoreo.close();
  }
}

… which in our example resulted with the following:

Arduino Yun Google Docs Spreadsheet time date data

… and here is a video that shows how the spreadsheet updates in real time across multiple devices:

 Conclusion

It’s no secret that the Yún isn’t the cheapest devleopment board around, however the ease of use as demonstrated in this tutorial shows that the time saved in setup and application is more than worth the purchase price of the board and extra Temboo credits if required.

And if you’re interested in learning more about Arduino, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Tutorial – Google Docs and the Arduino Yún appeared first on tronixstuff.

Nov
10

Old Kit Review – Diesel Sound Simulator for Model Railroads

1992, chip, december, dick, diesel, DSE, Electronics, K3030, kit, kit review, model railway, review, silicon, simulator, smith, sound, tronixstuff Commenti disabilitati su Old Kit Review – Diesel Sound Simulator for Model Railroads 

Introduction

In this review of an older kit (circa 1993~1997) we examine the Diesel Sound Simulator for Model Railroads kit from (the now defunct) Dick Smith Electronics, based on the article published in the December 1992 issue of Silicon Chip magazine.

The purpose of this kit is to give you a small circuit which can fit in a HO scale (or larger) locomotive, or hidden underneath the layout – that can emulate the rumbling of a diesel-electric locomotive to increase the realism of a train. However the kit is designed for use with a PWM train controller (also devised by Silicon Chip!) so not for the simple direct-DC drive layouts.

K3030 diesel sound simulator kit

Assembly

The diesel sound kit was from the time when DSE still cared about kits, so you received the sixteen page “Guide to Kit Construction” plus the kit instructions, nasty red disclaimer sheet, feedback card, plus all the required components and the obligatory coil of solder that was usually rubbish:

K3030 diesel sound simulator kit contents

Everything required to get going is included, except IC sockets. My theory is it’s cheaper to use your own sockets than source older CMOS/TTL later on if you want to reuse the ICs, so sockets are now mandatory here:

K3030 diesel sound simulator kit parts

The PCB is from the old school of “figure-it-out-yourself”, no fancy silk-screening here:

K3030 diesel sound simulator kit PCB

K3030 diesel sound simulator kit PCB bottom

Notice the five horizontal pads between the two ICs – these were for wire bridges in case you needed to break the PCB in two to fit inside your locomotive.

Actual assembly was straight-forward, all the components went in without any issues. Having two links under IC2 was a little annoying, however a short while later the PCB was finished and the speaker attached:

K3030 diesel sound simulator kit finished

How it works

As mentioned earlier this diesel sound kit was designed for use with the Silicon Chip train PWM controller, so the design is a little different than expected. It can handle a voltage of around 20 V, and the sound is determined by the speed of the locomotive.

The speed is determined by the back EMF measured from the motor – and (from the manual) this is the voltage produced by the motor which opposes the current flow through it and this voltage is directly proportional to speed.

Not having a 20V DC PWM supply laying about I knocked up an Arduino to PWM a 20V DC supply via an N-MOSFET module and experimented with the duty cycle to see what sort of noises could be possible. The output was affected somewhat by the supply voltage, however seemed a little higher in pitch than expected.

You can listen to the results in the following video:

I reckon the sound from around the twenty second mark isn’t a bad idle noise, however in general not that great. The results will ultimately be a function of a lower duty-cycle than I could create at the time and the values of R1 and R2 used in the kit.

 Conclusion

Another kit review over. With some time spent experimenting you could generate the required diesel sounds, a Paxman-Valenta it isn’t… but it was a fun kit and I’m sure it was well-received at the time. To those who have been asking me privately, no I don’t have a secret line to some underground warehouse of old kits – just keep an eye out on ebay and they pop up now and again. Full-sized images and much more information about the kit are available on flickr.

And while you’re here – are you interested in Arduino? Check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Old Kit Review – Diesel Sound Simulator for Model Railroads appeared first on tronixstuff.

Nov
09

Project – LED Cube Spectrum Analyzer

analyzer, arduino, com-10468, cube, CUBE4, freetronics, kit, LED, MSGEQ7, project, projects, RGB, RGB LED, spectrum, tronixstuff, tutorial Commenti disabilitati su Project – LED Cube Spectrum Analyzer 

Introduction

A few weeks ago I was asked about creating a musical-effect display with an RGB LED cube kit from our friends over at Freetronics, and with a little work this was certainly possible using the MSGEQ7 spectrum analyzer IC. In this project we’ll create a small add-on PCB containing the spectrum analyzer circuit and show how it can drive the RGB LED cube kit.

Freetronics CUBE4 RGB LED cube kit

Assumed knowledge

To save repeating myself, please familiarise yourself with the MSGEQ7 spectrum analyzer IC in Chapter 48 of our Arduino tutorials. And learn more about the LED cube from our review and the product page.

You can get the bare MSGEQ7 ICs from Sparkfun and the other usual suspects. It never hurts to have a spare one, so order two and matching IC sockets. Finally you should be able to translate a simple circuit to prototyping board.

The circuit

The LED cube already has an Arduino Leonardo-compatible built in to the main PCB, so all you need to do is build a small circuit that contains the spectrum analyzer which connects to the I/O pins on the cube PCB and also has audio input and output connections. First, consider the schematic:

MSGEQ7 CUBE4 spectrum analyser schematic

For the purposes of this project our spectrum analyzer will only display the results from one channel of audio – if you want stereo, you’ll need two! And note that the strobe, reset and DCOUT pins on the MSGEQ7 are labelled with the connections to the cube PCB. Furthermore the pinouts for the MSGEQ7 don’t match the physical reality – here are the pinouts from the MSGEQ7 data sheet (.pdf):

MSGEQ7 pinouts

The circuit itself will be quite small and fit on a small amount of stripboard or veroboard. There is plenty of room underneath the cube to fit the circuit if so desired:

MSGEQ7 LED cube

With a few moments you should be able to trace out your circuit to match the board type you have, remember to double-check before soldering. You will also need to connect the audio in point after the 1000 pF capacitor to a source of audio, and also pass it through so you can connect powered speakers, headphones, etc.

One method of doing so would be to cut up a male-female audio extension lead, and connect the shield to the GND of the circuit, and the signal line to the audio input on the circuit. Or if you have the parts handy and some shielded cable, just make your own input and output leads:

MSGEQ7 input output leads

Be sure to test for shorts between the signal and shield before soldering to the circuit board. When finished, you should have something neat that you can hide under the cube or elsewhere:

MSGEQ7 RGB cube LED spectrum analyzer board

Double-check your soldering for shorts and your board plan, then fit to the cube along with the audio source and speakers (etc).

Arduino Sketch

The sketch has two main functions – the first is to capture the levels from the MSGEQ7 and put the values for each frequency band into an array, and the second function is to turn on LEDs that represent the level for each band. If you’ve been paying attention you may be wondering how we can represent seven frequency bands with a 4x4x4 LED cube. Simple – by rotating the cube 45 degrees you can see seven vertical columns of LEDs:

MSGEQ7 LED cube spectrum analyzer columns

So when looking from the angle as shown above, you have seven vertical columns, each with four levels of LEDs. Thus the strength of each frequency can be broken down into four levels, and then the appropriate LEDs turned on.

After this is done for each band, all the LEDs are turned off and the process repeats. For the sake of simplicity I’ve used the cube’s Arduino library to activate the LEDs, which also makes the sketch easier to fathom. The first example sketch only uses one colour:

// Freetronics CUBE4: and MSGEQ7 spectrum analyser
// MSGEQ7 strobe on A4, reset on D5, signal into A0

#include "SPI.h"
#include "Cube.h"
Cube cube;

int res = 5; // reset pins on D5
int left[7]; // store band values in these arrays
int band;

void setup()
{
  pinMode(res, OUTPUT); // reset
  pinMode(A4, OUTPUT); // strobe
  digitalWrite(res,LOW); 
  digitalWrite(A4,HIGH); 
  cube.begin(-1, 115200);
  Serial.begin(9600);
}

void readMSGEQ7()
// Function to read 7 band equalizers
{
  digitalWrite(res, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(res, LOW);
  for(band=0; band <7; band++)
  {
    digitalWrite(A4,LOW); // strobe pin on the shield - kicks the IC up to the next band 
    delayMicroseconds(30); // 
    left[band] = analogRead(0); // store band reading
    digitalWrite(A4,HIGH); 
  }
}

void loop()
{
  readMSGEQ7();

  for (band = 0; band < 7; band++)
  {
    // div each band strength into four layers, each band then one of the odd diagonals 

    // band one ~ 63 Hz
    if (left[0]>=768) { 
      cube.set(3,3,3, BLUE); 
    } 
    else       
      if (left[0]>=512) { 
      cube.set(3,3,2, BLUE); 
    } 
    else   
      if (left[0]>=256) { 
      cube.set(3,3,1, BLUE); 
    } 
    else       
      if (left[0]>=0) { 
      cube.set(3,3,0, BLUE); 
    } 

    // band two ~ 160 Hz
    if (left[1]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(3,2,3, BLUE); 
      cube.set(2,3,3, BLUE);      
    }  
    else
      if (left[1]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,2,2, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,3,2, BLUE);      
      } 
      else   
        if (left[1]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,2,1, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,3,1, BLUE);      
      } 
      else   
        if (left[1]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,2,0, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,3,0, BLUE);      
      } 

    // band three ~ 400 Hz
    if (left[2]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(3,1,3, BLUE); 
      cube.set(2,2,3, BLUE);      
      cube.set(1,3,3, BLUE);            
    }  
    else
      if (left[2]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,1,2, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,2,2, BLUE);      
        cube.set(1,3,2, BLUE);            
      } 
      else   
        if (left[2]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,1,1, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,2,1, BLUE);      
        cube.set(1,3,1, BLUE);            
      } 
      else   
        if (left[2]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,1,0, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,2,0, BLUE);      
        cube.set(1,3,0, BLUE);            
      } 

    // band four ~ 1 kHz
    if (left[3]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(3,0,3, BLUE); 
      cube.set(2,1,3, BLUE);      
      cube.set(1,2,3, BLUE);            
      cube.set(0,3,3, BLUE);                  
    }  
    else
      if (left[3]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,0,2, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,1,2, BLUE);      
        cube.set(1,2,2, BLUE);            
        cube.set(0,3,2, BLUE);                        
      } 
      else   
        if (left[3]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,0,1, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,1,1, BLUE);      
        cube.set(1,2,1, BLUE);      
        cube.set(0,3,1, BLUE);                        
      } 
      else   
        if (left[3]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,0,0, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,1,0, BLUE);      
        cube.set(1,2,0, BLUE);            
        cube.set(0,3,0, BLUE);                        
      } 

    // band five  ~ 2.5 kHz
    if (left[4]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(2,0,3, BLUE); 
      cube.set(1,1,3, BLUE);      
      cube.set(0,2,3, BLUE);            
    }  
    else
      if (left[4]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(2,0,2, BLUE); 
        cube.set(1,1,2, BLUE);      
        cube.set(0,2,2, BLUE);            
      } 
      else   
        if (left[4]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(2,0,1, BLUE); 
        cube.set(1,1,1, BLUE);      
        cube.set(0,2,1, BLUE);      
      } 
      else   
        if (left[4]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(2,0,0, BLUE); 
        cube.set(1,1,0, BLUE);      
        cube.set(0,2,0, BLUE);            
      } 

    // band six   ~ 6.25 kHz
    if (left[5]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(1,0,3, BLUE); 
      cube.set(0,1,3, BLUE);      
    }  
    else
      if (left[5]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(1,0,2, BLUE); 
        cube.set(0,1,2, BLUE);      
      } 
      else   
        if (left[5]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(1,0,1, BLUE); 
        cube.set(0,1,1, BLUE);      
      } 
      else   
        if (left[5]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(1,0,0, BLUE); 
        cube.set(0,1,0, BLUE);      
      } 

    // band seven  ~ 16 kHz
    if (left[6]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(0,0,3, BLUE); 
    }  
    else
      if (left[6]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(0,0,2, BLUE); 
      } 
      else   
        if (left[6]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(0,0,1, BLUE); 
      } 
      else   
        if (left[6]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(0,0,0, BLUE); 
      } 
  }
  // now clear the CUBE, or if that's too slow - repeat the process but turn LEDs off
  cube.all(BLACK);
}

… and a quick video demonstration:

For a second example, we’ve used various colours:

// Freetronics CUBE4: and MSGEQ7 spectrum analyser
// MSGEQ7 strobe on A4, reset on D5, signal into A0
// now in colour!

#include "SPI.h"
#include "Cube.h"
Cube cube;

int res = 5; // reset pins on D5
int left[7]; // store band values in these arrays
int band;
int additional=0;

void setup()
{
  pinMode(res, OUTPUT); // reset
  pinMode(A4, OUTPUT); // strobe
  digitalWrite(res,LOW); 
  digitalWrite(A4,HIGH); 
  cube.begin(-1, 115200);
  Serial.begin(9600);
}

void readMSGEQ7()
// Function to read 7 band equalizers
{
  digitalWrite(res, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(res, LOW);
  for(band=0; band <7; band++)
  {
    digitalWrite(A4,LOW); // strobe pin on the shield - kicks the IC up to the next band 
    delayMicroseconds(30); // 
    left[band] = analogRead(0) + additional; // store band reading
    digitalWrite(A4,HIGH); 
  }
}

void loop()
{
  readMSGEQ7();

  for (band = 0; band < 7; band++)
  {
    // div each band strength into four layers, each band then one of the odd diagonals 

    // band one ~ 63 Hz
    if (left[0]>=768) { 
      cube.set(3,3,3, RED); 
    } 
    else       
      if (left[0]>=512) { 
      cube.set(3,3,2, YELLOW); 
    } 
    else   
      if (left[0]>=256) { 
      cube.set(3,3,1, YELLOW); 
    } 
    else       
      if (left[0]>=0) { 
      cube.set(3,3,0, BLUE); 
    } 

    // band two ~ 160 Hz
    if (left[1]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(3,2,3, RED); 
      cube.set(2,3,3, RED);      
    }  
    else
      if (left[1]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,2,2, YELLOW); 
        cube.set(2,3,2, YELLOW);      
      } 
      else   
        if (left[1]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,2,1, YELLOW); 
        cube.set(2,3,1, YELLOW);      
      } 
      else   
        if (left[1]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,2,0, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,3,0, BLUE);      
      } 

    // band three ~ 400 Hz
    if (left[2]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(3,1,3, RED); 
      cube.set(2,2,3, RED);      
      cube.set(1,3,3, RED);            
    }  
    else
      if (left[2]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,1,2, YELLOW); 
        cube.set(2,2,2, YELLOW);      
        cube.set(1,3,2, YELLOW);            
      } 
      else   
        if (left[2]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,1,1, YELLOW); 
        cube.set(2,2,1, YELLOW);      
        cube.set(1,3,1, YELLOW);            
      } 
      else   
        if (left[2]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,1,0, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,2,0, BLUE);      
        cube.set(1,3,0, BLUE);            
      } 

    // band four ~ 1 kHz
    if (left[3]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(3,0,3, RED); 
      cube.set(2,1,3, RED);      
      cube.set(1,2,3, RED);            
      cube.set(0,3,3, RED);                  
    }  
    else
      if (left[3]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,0,2, YELLOW); 
        cube.set(2,1,2, YELLOW);      
        cube.set(1,2,2, YELLOW);            
        cube.set(0,3,2, YELLOW);                        
      } 
      else   
        if (left[3]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,0,1, YELLOW); 
        cube.set(2,1,1, YELLOW);      
        cube.set(1,2,1, YELLOW);      
        cube.set(0,3,1, YELLOW);                        
      } 
      else   
        if (left[3]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(3,0,0, BLUE); 
        cube.set(2,1,0, BLUE);      
        cube.set(1,2,0, BLUE);            
        cube.set(0,3,0, BLUE);                        
      } 

    // band five  ~ 2.5 kHz
    if (left[4]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(2,0,3, RED); 
      cube.set(1,1,3, RED);      
      cube.set(0,2,3, RED);            
    }  
    else
      if (left[4]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(2,0,2, YELLOW); 
        cube.set(1,1,2, YELLOW);      
        cube.set(0,2,2, YELLOW);            
      } 
      else   
        if (left[4]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(2,0,1, YELLOW); 
        cube.set(1,1,1, YELLOW);      
        cube.set(0,2,1, YELLOW);      
      } 
      else   
        if (left[4]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(2,0,0, BLUE); 
        cube.set(1,1,0, BLUE);      
        cube.set(0,2,0, BLUE);            
      } 

    // band six   ~ 6.25 kHz
    if (left[5]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(1,0,3, RED); 
      cube.set(0,1,3, RED);      
    }  
    else
      if (left[5]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(1,0,2, YELLOW); 
        cube.set(0,1,2, YELLOW);      
      } 
      else   
        if (left[5]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(1,0,1, YELLOW); 
        cube.set(0,1,1, YELLOW);      
      } 
      else   
        if (left[5]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(1,0,0, BLUE); 
        cube.set(0,1,0, BLUE);      
      } 

    // band seven  ~ 16 kHz
    if (left[6]>=768) 
    { 
      cube.set(0,0,3, RED); 
    }  
    else
      if (left[6]>=512) 
      { 
        cube.set(0,0,2, YELLOW); 
      } 
      else   
        if (left[6]>=256) 
      { 
        cube.set(0,0,1, YELLOW); 
      } 
      else   
        if (left[6]>=0) 
      { 
        cube.set(0,0,0, BLUE); 
      } 
  }
  // now clear the CUBE, or if that's too slow - repeat the process but turn LEDs off
  cube.all(BLACK);
}

… and the second video demonstration:

A little bit of noise comes through into the spectrum analyzer, most likely due to the fact that the entire thing is unshielded. The previous prototype used the Arduino shield from the tutorial which didn’t have this problem, so if you’re keen perhaps make your own custom PCB for this project.

Conclusion

Well that was something different and I hope you enjoyed it, and can find use for the circuit. That MSGEQ7 is a handy IC and with some imagination you can create a variety of musically-influenced displays. And while you’re here – are you interested in learning more about Arduino? Then order my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Project – LED Cube Spectrum Analyzer appeared first on tronixstuff.

Nov
07

Kit Review – Altronics Pocket Oscillator

altronics, K2544, kit, kit review, opamp, oscillator, pocket, review, TL064, tronixstuff Commenti disabilitati su Kit Review – Altronics Pocket Oscillator 

Introduction

In this review we examine the Pocket Oscillator Kit from Altronics, based on an design from (the now defunct) February and March 1989 editions of Electronics Australia magazine. The purpose of this oscillator is to give you a high quality, portable square or sine wave generator that can be used to test audio equipment, speaker response, fool about with oscilloscopes (!), and so on. The prototype basic specifications are as follows:

  • Frequency range: 41~1082 Hz and 735 Hz~18.1 kHz
  • Output: 1.27V RMS sine, 1.45V peak square
  • Load: 1.0V RMS sine into 330 Ω
  • Distortion: 0.16% THD at 1 kHz

Assembly

The kit is packaged in typical form, without any surprises:

Altronics K2544

In the usual Altronics fashion, the instructions are accompanied with a neat “electronics reference sheet” which covers many useful topics such as resistor colour codes, various formulae, PCB track widths, pinouts and more. The kit instructions are based on the original magazine article and include a small addendum which isn’t any problem.

Altronics_K2544_instructions

Unlike some kits, everything is included to create a finished product (except for the IC socket):

Altronics K2544 parts

… including a nice enclosure which has the control instructions screen-printed on the lid…

Altronics K2544 enclosure

However at this point I think the definition of a “pocket” is the same used by Sir Clive Sinclair when he had those pocket televisions. At this time I won’t use the enclosure as my drill press is in storage, however look forward to fitting the kit within at a later point. The PCB has a neat solder mask and silk screen:

Altronics K2544 PCB top

Altronics K2544 PCB bottom

Assembly was pretty straight forward, the original design has tried to minimise PCB real-estate, so all the resistors are mounted vertically. The signal diodes take this a step further – each pair needs to be soldered together:

Altronics K2544 diodes

… then the pair is also mounted vertically:

Altronics K2544 diodes mounted

However it all works in the end. The rest of the circuit went together well, and we used our own IC socket for the opamp:

Altronics K2544 assembled PCB

From this point you need to wire up the power, switches and potentiometers:

Altronics K2544 assembly

… and consider mounting the whole lot in the enclosure (or before assembly!):

Altronics K2544 lid

However as mentioned earlier, I just went for the open octopus method for time being:

Altronics K2544 finished

How it works

The oscillator is based around the Texas Instruments TL064 opamp, and due to copyright I can’t give you the schematic. For complete details on the oscillator, either purchase the kit or locate the February and March 1989 edition of Electronics Australia magazine. However the waveforms from the oscillator looked good (as far as they can on a DSO):

Altronics Pocket Audio Oscillator K2544 sine wave output

Altronics Pocket Audio Oscillator K2544 sine wave output

Altronics Pocket Audio Oscillator K2544 square wave output

Altronics Pocket Audio Oscillator K2544 square wave output

Conclusion

The oscillator works well, however the PCB layout could have been a little lot easier on the end-user. It’s time for a redesign, possibly put all the contacts for external switches around the perimeter – and allow space for the diodes to lay normally. Nevertheless – this is a neat kit, and still quite popular after all these years. For the price you get a few hours of kit fun and a useful piece of test equipment. So if you’re into audio or experimenting, check it out. Full-sized images are available on flickr.

And while you’re here – are you interested in Arduino? Check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press – also shortly available from Altronics.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

[Note - kit purchased without notifying the supplier]

The post Kit Review – Altronics Pocket Oscillator appeared first on tronixstuff.

Ott
29

Tutorial – twitter and the Arduino Yún

arduino, lesson, temboo, tronixstuff, tutorial, twitter, wifi, Yun Commenti disabilitati su Tutorial – twitter and the Arduino Yún 

Introduction

After spending almost $100 on an Arduino Yún to see what the fuss was about, it seemed like a good idea to find and demonstrate some uses for it. So in this article we’ll examine how your Yún can send a tweet using some simple example sketches – and the first of several Arduino Yún-specific tutorials.

Getting Started

If you haven’t already done so, ensure your Arduino Yún can connect to your network via WiFi or cable – and get a Temboo account (we run through this here). And you need (at the time of writing) IDE version 1.5.4 which can be downloaded from the Arduino website. Finally, if you don’t have a twitter account – go get one.

Arduino Yun Yún front

Sending a tweet from your Yún

Thanks to Arduino and Temboo, 99% of the work is already done for you. To send a tweet requires the Arduino sketch, a header file with your Temboo account details, and also the need to register an application in the twitter development console.

Don’t panic, just follow the “Get Set Up” instructions from the following page. When you do – make sure you’re logged into the Temboo website, as it will then populate the header file with your Temboo details for you. During the twitter application stage, don’t forget to save your OAuth settings which will appear in the “OAuth Tool” tab in the twitter developer page, for example:

Arduino Yun OAuth twitter

… as they are copied into every sketch starting from the line:

const String TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN =

When you save the sketch, make sure you place the header file with the name TembooAccount.h in the same folder as your sketch. You know this has been successful when opening the sketch, as you will see the header file in a second tab, for example:

Arduino Yun sketch header file

Finally, if you’re sharing code with others, remove your OAuth and TembooAccount.h details otherwise they can send tweets on your behalf.

OK – enough warnings. If you’ve successfully created your Temboo account, got your twitter OAuth details, fed them all into the sketch and header file, then saved (!) and uploaded your sketch to the Arduino Yún - a short tweet will appear on your timeline, for example:

Arduino Yun twiiter

If nothing appears on your twitter feed, open the serial monitor in the IDE and see what messages appear. It will feed back to you the error message from twitter, which generally indicates the problem.

Moving on, let’s examine how to send tweets with your own information. In the following example sketch we send the value resulting from analogRead(0) and text combined together in one line. Don’t forget twitter messages (tweets) have a maximum length of 140 characters. We’ve moved all the tweet-sending into one function tweet(), which you can then call from your sketch when required – upon an event and so on. The text and data to send is combined into a String in line 26:

#include <Bridge.h>
#include <Temboo.h>
#include "TembooAccount.h" // contains Temboo account information
                           // as described in the footer comment below

const String TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN = "aaaa";
const String TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN_SECRET = "bbbb";
const String TWITTER_CONSUMER_KEY = "ccccc";
const String TWITTER_CONSUMER_SECRET = "dddd";

int analogZero;

void setup() 
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  delay(4000);
  while(!Serial);
  Bridge.begin();
}

void tweet()
{
    Serial.println("Running tweet() function");

    // define the text of the tweet we want to send
    String tweetText("The value of A0 is " + String(analogZero) + ". Hooray for twitter");

    TembooChoreo StatusesUpdateChoreo;
    // invoke the Temboo client
    // NOTE that the client must be reinvoked, and repopulated with
    // appropriate arguments, each time its run() method is called.
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.begin();
    // set Temboo account credentials
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.setAccountName(TEMBOO_ACCOUNT);
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.setAppKeyName(TEMBOO_APP_KEY_NAME);
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.setAppKey(TEMBOO_APP_KEY);
    // identify the Temboo Library choreo to run (Twitter > Tweets > StatusesUpdate)
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.setChoreo("/Library/Twitter/Tweets/StatusesUpdate");
    // add the Twitter account information
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.addInput("AccessToken", TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN);
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.addInput("AccessTokenSecret", TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN_SECRET);
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.addInput("ConsumerKey", TWITTER_CONSUMER_KEY);    
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.addInput("ConsumerSecret", TWITTER_CONSUMER_SECRET);
    // and the tweet we want to send
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.addInput("StatusUpdate", tweetText);
    // tell the Process to run and wait for the results. The 
    // return code (returnCode) will tell us whether the Temboo client 
    // was able to send our request to the Temboo servers
    unsigned int returnCode = StatusesUpdateChoreo.run();
    // a return code of zero (0) means everything worked
    if (returnCode == 0) {
        Serial.println("Success! Tweet sent!");
    } else {
      // a non-zero return code means there was an error
      // read and print the error message
      while (StatusesUpdateChoreo.available()) {
        char c = StatusesUpdateChoreo.read();
        Serial.print(c);
      }
    } 
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.close();
    // do nothing for the next 90 seconds
    Serial.println("Waiting...");
    delay(90000);
}

void loop()
{
  // get some data from A0. 
  analogZero=analogRead(0);
  tweet();
  do {} while (1); // do nothing
}

Which results with the following example tweet:

Arduino Yun sends twitter data

With the previous example sketch you can build your own functionality around the tweet() function to send data when required. Recall that the data to send as a tweet is combined into a String at line 26.

Please note that you can’t blast out tweets like a machine, for two reasons – one, twitter doesn’t like rapid automated tweeting – and two, you only get 1000 free calls on your Temboo account per month. If you need more, the account needs to be upgraded at a cost.

Conclusion

Well the Yún gives us another way to send data out via twitter. It wasn’t the cheapest way of doing so, however it was quite simple. And thus the trade-off with the Arduino platform – simplicity vs. price. If there is demand, we’ll examine more connected functions with the Yún.

And if you’re interested in learning more about Arduino, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Tutorial – twitter and the Arduino Yún appeared first on tronixstuff.

Ott
25

Review – “Ardublock” graphical programming for Arduino

ardublock, arduino, graphical, Java, language, Programming, review, Software, software review, tronixstuff, tutorial Commenti disabilitati su Review – “Ardublock” graphical programming for Arduino 

Introduction

After helping many people get started with the world of Arduino and electronics,  we still find a small percentage of people who are turned off by the concept of programming or have trouble breaking larger tasks into smaller ones with regards to writing algorithms for their code/sketch.

So after being introduced to a new graphical programming tool called “Ardublock“, we were excited about the possibilities wanted to share it with our readers. Ardublock provides a truly graphical and non-coding solution to controlling an Arduino, that is an open-source product and thus free to download and try for yourself.

Installation

Ardublock is a Java application that runs from inside the Arduino IDE, which can be downloaded from here. It’s only one file, that needs to be placed in a new folder in the Arduino IDE. The folder names must be the same as shown below:

ardublock installation folder

Once you’ve copied the file, simply open the Arduino IDE and select Ardublock from the Tools menu:

arduino ide tools menu ardublockFrom which point a new window appears – the Ardublock “development environment”:

ardublock development environment

 Using Ardublock

It’s quite simple – you simply select the required function from the menu on the left and drag it into the large area on the right. For a quick example where we blink the onboard LED on and off – watch the following video:

 

The following image is the screen capture of the program from the video:

ardublock LED Blink

As you can see the “blocks” just fit together, and parameters can be changed with the right mouse button. After a few moments experimenting with the Ardublock software you will have the hang of it in no time at all.

And thus you can demonstrate it to other people and show them how easy it is. And there is much more than just digital output controls, all the functions you’re used to including I2C, variables, constants, servos, tone and more are available.

The only technical thing you need to demonstrate is that the Arduino IDE needs to stay open in the background – as once you have finished creating your program, Ardublock creates the required real Arduino sketch back in the IDE and uploads it to the board.

This is also a neat function – the user can then compare their Ardublock program against the actual sketch, and hopefully after a short duration the user will have the confidence to move on with normal coding.

Conclusion

Ardublock provides a very simple method of controlling an Arduino, and makes a great starting point for teaching the coding-averse, very young people or the cognitively-challenged. It’s open source, integrates well with the official IDE and works as described – so give it a go.

And if you enjoyed this review, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

tronixstuff

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Review – “Ardublock” graphical programming for Arduino appeared first on tronixstuff.



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