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Nov
19

Arduino Tutorials – Chapter 15 – RFID

125 kHz, access, arduino, EM4100, lesson, RDM630, rfid, RFR101A1M, RFR103B2B, seeedstudio, system, tronixstuff, TTL, tutorial Commenti disabilitati su Arduino Tutorials – Chapter 15 – RFID 

Learn how to use RFID readers with your Arduino. In this instalment we use an RDM630 or RDM6300 RFID reader. If you have an Innovations ID-12 or ID-20 RFID reader, we have a different tutorial for you.

This is chapter fifteen of our huge Arduino tutorial seriesUpdated 19/11/2013

Introduction

RFID – radio frequency identification. Some of us have already used these things, and they have become part of everyday life. For example, with electronic vehicle tolling, door access control, public transport fare systems and so on. It sounds complex – but isn’t.

To explain RFID for the layperson, we can use a key and lock analogy. Instead of the key having a unique pattern, RFID keys hold a series of unique numbers which are read by the lock. It is up to our Arduino sketch to determine what happens when the number is read by the lock.  The key is the tag, card or other small device we carry around or have in our vehicles. We will be using a passive key, which is an integrated circuit and a small aerial. This uses power from a magnetic field associated with the lock. Here are some key or tag examples:

Arduino RFID tags

In this tutorial we’ll be using 125 kHz tags – for example. To continue with the analogy our lock is a small circuit board and a loop aerial. This has the capability to read the data on the IC of our key, and some locks can even write data to keys. Here is our reader (lock) example:

Seeedstudio RFID reader Arduino

These readers are quite small and inexpensive – however the catch is that the loop aerial is somewhat fragile. If you need something much sturdier, consider the ID20 tags used in the other RFID tutorial.

Setting up the RFID reader

This is a short exercise to check the reader works and communicates with the Arduino. You will need:

Simply insert the RFID reader main board into a solderless breadboard as shown below. Then use jumper wires to connect the second and third pins at the top-left of the RFID board to Arduino 5V and GND respectively. The RFID coil connects to the two pins on the top-right (they can go either way). Finally, connect a jumper wire from the bottom-left pin of the RFID board to Arduino digital pin 2:

Arduino RFID reader setup

Next, upload the following sketch to your Arduino and open the serial monitor window in the IDE:

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial RFID(2, 3); // RX and TX

int i;

void setup()
{
  RFID.begin(9600);    // start serial to RFID reader
  Serial.begin(9600);  // start serial to PC 
}

void loop()
{
  if (RFID.available() > 0) 
  {
     i = RFID.read();
     Serial.print(i, DEC);
     Serial.print(" ");
  }
}

If you’re wondering why we used SoftwareSerial – if you connect the data line from the RFID board to the Arduino’s RX pin – you need to remove it when updating sketches, so this is more convenient.

Now start waving RFID cards or tags over the coil. You will find that they need to be parallel over the coil, and not too far away. You can experiment with covering the coil to simulate it being installed behind protective surfaces and so on. Watch this short video which shows the resulting RFID card or tag data being displayed in the Arduino IDE serial monitor.

As you can see from the example video, the reader returns the card’s unique ID number which starts with a 2 and ends with a 3. While you have the sketch operating, read the numbers from your RFID tags and note them down, you will need them for future sketches.

To do anything with the card data, we need to create some functions to retrieve the card number when it is read and place in an array for comparison against existing card data (e.g. a list of accepted cards) so your systems will know who to accept and who to deny. Using those functions, you can then make your own access system, time-logging device and so on.

Let’s demonstrate an example of this. It will check if a card presented to the reader is on an “accepted” list, and if so light a green LED, otherwise light a red LED. Use the hardware from the previous sketch, but add a typical green and red LED with 560 ohm resistor to digital pins 13 and 12 respectively. Then upload the following sketch:

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial RFID(2, 3); // RX and TX

int data1 = 0;
int ok = -1;
int yes = 13;
int no = 12;

// use first sketch in http://wp.me/p3LK05-3Gk to get your tag numbers
int tag1[14] = {2,52,48,48,48,56,54,66,49,52,70,51,56,3};
int tag2[14] = {2,52,48,48,48,56,54,67,54,54,66,54,66,3};
int newtag[14] = { 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0}; // used for read comparisons

void setup()
{
  RFID.begin(9600);    // start serial to RFID reader
  Serial.begin(9600);  // start serial to PC 
  pinMode(yes, OUTPUT); // for status LEDs
  pinMode(no, OUTPUT);
}

boolean comparetag(int aa[14], int bb[14])
{
  boolean ff = false;
  int fg = 0;
  for (int cc = 0 ; cc < 14 ; cc++)
  {
    if (aa[cc] == bb[cc])
    {
      fg++;
    }
  }
  if (fg == 14)
  {
    ff = true;
  }
  return ff;
}

void checkmytags() // compares each tag against the tag just read
{
  ok = 0; // this variable helps decision-making,
  // if it is 1 we have a match, zero is a read but no match,
  // -1 is no read attempt made
  if (comparetag(newtag, tag1) == true)
  {
    ok++;
  }
  if (comparetag(newtag, tag2) == true)
  {
    ok++;
  }
}

void readTags()
{
  ok = -1;

  if (RFID.available() > 0) 
  {
    // read tag numbers
    delay(100); // needed to allow time for the data to come in from the serial buffer.

    for (int z = 0 ; z < 14 ; z++) // read the rest of the tag
    {
      data1 = RFID.read();
      newtag[z] = data1;
    }
    RFID.flush(); // stops multiple reads

    // do the tags match up?
    checkmytags();
  }

  // now do something based on tag type
  if (ok > 0) // if we had a match
  {
    Serial.println("Accepted");
    digitalWrite(yes, HIGH);
    delay(1000);
    digitalWrite(yes, LOW);

    ok = -1;
  }
  else if (ok == 0) // if we didn't have a match
  {
    Serial.println("Rejected");
    digitalWrite(no, HIGH);
    delay(1000);
    digitalWrite(no, LOW);

    ok = -1;
  }
}

void loop()
{
  readTags();
}

In the sketch we have a few functions that take care of reading and comparing RFID tags. Notice that the allowed tag numbers are listed at the top of the sketch, you can always add your own and more – as long as you add them to the list in the function checkmytags() which determines if the card being read is allowed or to be denied.

The function readTags() takes care of the actual reading of the tags/cards, by placing the currently-read tag number into an array which is them used in the comparison function checkmytags(). Then the LEDs are illuminated depending on the status of the tag at the reader. You can watch a quick demonstration of this example in this short video.

 

Conclusion

After working through this chapter you should now have a good foundation of knowledge on using the inexpensive RFID readers and how to call functions when a card is successfully read. For example, use some extra hardware (such as an N-MOSFET) to control a door strike, buzzer, etc. Now it’s up to you to use them as a form of input with various access systems, tracking the movement of people or things and much more.

And if you enjoyed the tutorial, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

tronixstuff

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Arduino Tutorials – Chapter 15 – RFID appeared first on tronixstuff.

Nov
13

Book – “Arduino Workshop – A Hands-On Introduction with 65 Projects”

arduino, Arduino Workshop, book, boxall, discount, john, lesson, no, press, starch, tronixstuff, tutorial, workshop Commenti disabilitati su Book – “Arduino Workshop – A Hands-On Introduction with 65 Projects” 

Over the last few years you may have noticed a few of my Arduino tutorials, and during this time many people have mentioned that I should write a book. And now thanks to the team from No Starch Press this recommendation has morphed into my book – “Arduino Workshop“:

Arduino Workshop book

Now into the third print run, “Arduino Workshop” is one of the few books on the market that can take the reader from zero knowledge to understanding the Arduino development platform, and working with a huge array of add-ons and technologies. And a huge “thank you” to all those who have purchased and supported the book so far.

Arduino Workshop” offers a professionally-edited and curated path for the beginner to learn with and have fun. It’s a hands-on introduction to Arduino with 65 projects – from simple LED use right through to RFID, Internet connection, wireless data, working with cellular communications, and much more. Plus the reader also learns about electronics, good coding and other interesting topics.

Arduino_Workshop_GPS

Each project is explained in detail, explaining how the hardware and Arduino code works together. Plus we teach you how to read and understand circuit schematics and use this clear method of describing circuits which prepares the read for further electronics learning.

Arduino Workshop piezo

The reader doesn’t need any expensive tools or workspaces, and all the parts used are available from almost any electronics retailer. Furthermore all of the projects can be finished without soldering, so it’s safe for readers of all ages.

The editing team at No Starch Press, our technical editor Marc Alexander and myself have worked hard to make the book perfect for those without any electronics or Arduino experience at all, and it makes a great gift for someone to get them started. After working through the 65 projects the reader will have gained enough knowledge and confidence to create many things – and to continue researching on their own. Or if you’ve been enjoying the results of my thousands of hours of work here at tronixstuff, you can show your appreciation by ordering a copy for yourself or as a gift. If you’re still not sure, review the table of contents, index and download a sample chapter from the Arduino Workshop website.

Finally – between now and the end of the year, you can get a 30% discount from No Starch by using the coupon code “tronixstuff” – and this still includes the DRM-free eBooks. 

Arduino Workshop is available from No Starch Press in printed or DRM-free eBook (PDF, Mobi, and ePub) formats. And the eBooks are also included with the printed orders so you can get started immediately.

tronixstuff

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Book – “Arduino Workshop – A Hands-On Introduction with 65 Projects” appeared first on tronixstuff.

Nov
11

Tutorial – Google Docs and the Arduino Yún

arduino, Docs, DS3232, google, Google Docs, iot, lesson, review, spreadsheet, temboo, tronixstuff, tutorial, wifi, Yun Commenti disabilitati su Tutorial – Google Docs and the Arduino Yún 

Introduction

This is the second in a series of tutorials examining various uses of the Arduino Yún. In this article we’ll examine how your Arduino Yún can send data that it captures from the analogue and digital inputs and a real-time clock IC to an online Google Docs spreadsheet. Doing so gives you a neat and inexpensive method of capturing data in real-time and having the ability to analyse the data from almost anywhere, and export it with very little effort.

Getting Started

If you haven’t already done so, ensure your Arduino Yún can connect to your network via WiFi or cable – and get a Temboo account (we run through this here). And you need (at the time of writing) IDE version 1.5.4 which can be downloaded from the Arduino website. Finally, you will need a Google account, so if you don’t have one – sign up here.

Arduino Yun Yún front

Testing the Arduino Yún-Google Docs connection

In this first example we’ll run through the sketch provided by Temboo so you can confirm everything works as it should. First of all, create a spreadsheet in Google Docs. Call it “ArduinoData” and label the first two columns as “time” and “sensor”, as shown in the screen shot below:

Arduino Yun Google Docs Spreadsheet

Always label the required columns. You can call them whatever you need. For new Google users, the URL shown in my example will be different to yours. Next, copy the following sketch to the IDE:

/*
  SendDataToGoogleSpreadsheet

  Demonstrates appending a row of data to a Google spreadsheet from the Arduino Yun 
  using the Temboo Arduino Yun SDK.  

  This example code is in the public domain.

*/

#include <Bridge.h>
#include <Temboo.h>
#include "TembooAccount.h" // contains Temboo account information

/*** SUBSTITUTE YOUR VALUES BELOW: ***/

// Note that for additional security and reusability, you could
// use #define statements to specify these values in a .h file.

const String GOOGLE_USERNAME = "your-google-username";
const String GOOGLE_PASSWORD = "your-google-password";

// the title of the spreadsheet you want to send data to
// (Note that this must actually be the title of a Google spreadsheet
// that exists in your Google Drive/Docs account, and is configured
// as described above.)
const String SPREADSHEET_TITLE = "your-spreadsheet-title";

const unsigned long RUN_INTERVAL_MILLIS = 60000; // how often to run the Choreo (in milliseconds)

// the last time we ran the Choreo 
// (initialized to 60 seconds ago so the
// Choreo is run immediately when we start up)
unsigned long lastRun = (unsigned long)-60000;

void setup() {

  // for debugging, wait until a serial console is connected
  Serial.begin(9600);
  delay(4000);
  while(!Serial);

  Serial.print("Initializing the bridge...");
  Bridge.begin();
  Serial.println("Done");
}

void loop()
{
  // get the number of milliseconds this sketch has been running
  unsigned long now = millis();

  // run again if it's been 60 seconds since we last ran
  if (now - lastRun >= RUN_INTERVAL_MILLIS) {

    // remember 'now' as the last time we ran the choreo
    lastRun = now;

    Serial.println("Getting sensor value...");

    // get the value we want to append to our spreadsheet
    unsigned long sensorValue = getSensorValue();

    Serial.println("Appending value to spreadsheet...");

    // we need a Process object to send a Choreo request to Temboo
    TembooChoreo AppendRowChoreo;

    // invoke the Temboo client
    // NOTE that the client must be reinvoked and repopulated with
    // appropriate arguments each time its run() method is called.
    AppendRowChoreo.begin();

    // set Temboo account credentials
    AppendRowChoreo.setAccountName(TEMBOO_ACCOUNT);
    AppendRowChoreo.setAppKeyName(TEMBOO_APP_KEY_NAME);
    AppendRowChoreo.setAppKey(TEMBOO_APP_KEY);

    // identify the Temboo Library choreo to run (Google > Spreadsheets > AppendRow)
    AppendRowChoreo.setChoreo("/Library/Google/Spreadsheets/AppendRow");

    // set the required Choreo inputs
    // see https://www.temboo.com/library/Library/Google/Spreadsheets/AppendRow/ 
    // for complete details about the inputs for this Choreo

    // your Google username (usually your email address)
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("Username", GOOGLE_USERNAME);

    // your Google account password
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("Password", GOOGLE_PASSWORD);

    // the title of the spreadsheet you want to append to
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("SpreadsheetTitle", SPREADSHEET_TITLE);

    // convert the time and sensor values to a comma separated string
    String rowData(now);
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += sensorValue;

    // add the RowData input item
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("RowData", rowData);

    // run the Choreo and wait for the results
    // The return code (returnCode) will indicate success or failure 
    unsigned int returnCode = AppendRowChoreo.run();

    // return code of zero (0) means success
    if (returnCode == 0) {
      Serial.println("Success! Appended " + rowData);
      Serial.println("");
    } else {
      // return code of anything other than zero means failure  
      // read and display any error messages
      while (AppendRowChoreo.available()) {
        char c = AppendRowChoreo.read();
        Serial.print(c);
      }
    }

    AppendRowChoreo.close();
  }
}

// this function simulates reading the value of a sensor 
unsigned long getSensorValue() {
  return analogRead(A0);
}

Now look for the following two lines in the sketch:

const String GOOGLE_USERNAME = "your-google-username";
const String GOOGLE_PASSWORD = "your-google-password";

This is where you put your Google account username and password. For example, if your Google account is “CI5@gmail.com” and password “RS2000Escort” the two lines will be:

const String GOOGLE_USERNAME = "CI5@gmail.com";
const String GOOGLE_PASSWORD = "RS2000Escort";

Next, you need to insert the spreadsheet name in the sketch. Look for the following line:

const String SPREADSHEET_TITLE = "your-spreadsheet-title";

and change your-spreadsheet-title to ArduinoData. 

Finally, create your header file by copying the the header file data from here (after logging to Temboo) into a text file and saving it with the name TembooAccount.h in the same folder as your sketch from above. You know this has been successful when opening the sketch, as you will see the header file in a second tab, for example:

Arduino Yun sketch header file

Finally, save and upload your sketch to the Arduino Yún. After a moment or two it will send values to the spreadsheet, and repeat this every sixty seconds – for example:

Arduino Yun Google Docs Spreadsheet data

If your Yún is connected via USB you can also watch the status via the serial monitor.

 One really super-cool and convenient feature of using Google Docs is that you can access it from almost anywhere. Desktop, tablet, mobile… and it updates in real-time:

Arduino Yun_ Google Docs Spreadsheet_data_mobile

So with your Yún you can capture data and view it from anywhere you can access the Internet. Now let’s do just that.

Sending your own data from the Arduino Yún to a Google Docs Spreadsheet

In this example we’ll demonstrate sending three types of data:

With these types of data you should be able to represent all manner of things. We use the RTC as the time and date from it will match when the data was captured, not when the data was written to the spreadsheet. If you don’t have a DS3232 you can also use a DS1307.

If you’re not familiar with these parts and the required code please review this tutorial. When connecting your RTC – please note that SDA (data) is D2 and SCL (clock) is D3 on the Yún.

The sketch for this example is a modified version of the previous sketch, except we have more data to send. The data is captured into variables from the line:

// get the values from A0 to A3 and D7, D8

You can send whatever data you like, as long as it is all appended to a String by the name of rowdata. When you want to use a new column in the spreadsheet, simply append a comma “,” between the data in the string. In other words, you’re creating a string of CSV (comma-separated values) data. You can see this process happen from the line that has the comment:

// CSV creation starts here!

in the example sketch that follows shortly. Finally, you can alter the update rate of the sketch – it’s set to every 60 seconds, however you can change this by altering the 60000 (milliseconds) in the following line:

const unsigned long RUN_INTERVAL_MILLIS = 60000;

Don’t forget that each update costs you a call and some data from your Temboo account – you only get so many for free then you have to pay for more. Check your Temboo account for more details.

So without further ado, the following sketch will write the values read from A0~A3, the status of D7 and D8 (1 for HIGH, 0 for LOW) along with the current date and time to the spreadsheet. Don’t forget to update the password, username and so on as you did for the first example sketch:

#include <Bridge.h>
#include <Temboo.h>
#include "TembooAccount.h" // contains Temboo account information
#include "Wire.h"
#define DS3232_I2C_ADDRESS 0x68

unsigned long analog0, analog1, analog2, analog3;
int digital7 = 7;
int digital8 = 8;
boolean d7, d8;
byte second, minute, hour, dayOfWeek, dayOfMonth, month, year; // for RTC

const String GOOGLE_USERNAME = "your-google-username";
const String GOOGLE_PASSWORD = "your-google-password";
const String SPREADSHEET_TITLE = "your-spreadsheet-title";

// update interval in milliseconds (every minute would be 60000)
const unsigned long RUN_INTERVAL_MILLIS = 60000; 
unsigned long lastRun = (unsigned long)-60000;

void setup() 
{
  // activate I2C bus
  Wire.begin();  
  // for debugging, wait until a serial console is connected
  Serial.begin(9600);
  delay(4000);
  while(!Serial);
  Serial.print("Initializing the bridge...");
  Bridge.begin();
  Serial.println("Done");
  // Set up digital inputs to monitor
  pinMode(digital7, INPUT);
  pinMode(digital8, INPUT);
}

// for RTC
// Convert normal decimal numbers to binary coded decimal
byte decToBcd(byte val)
{
  return ( (val/10*16) + (val%10) );
}

// Convert binary coded decimal to normal decimal numbers
byte bcdToDec(byte val)
{
  return ( (val/16*10) + (val%16) );
}

void readDS3232time(byte *second, 
byte *minute, 
byte *hour, 
byte *dayOfWeek, 
byte *dayOfMonth, 
byte *month, 
byte *year)
{
  Wire.beginTransmission(DS3232_I2C_ADDRESS);
  Wire.write(0); // set DS3232 register pointer to 00h
  Wire.endTransmission();  
  Wire.requestFrom(DS3232_I2C_ADDRESS, 7); // request 7 bytes of data from DS3232 starting from register 00h
  // A few of these need masks because certain bits are control bits
  *second     = bcdToDec(Wire.read() & 0x7f);
  *minute     = bcdToDec(Wire.read());
  *hour       = bcdToDec(Wire.read() & 0x3f);  // Need to change this if 12 hour am/pm
  *dayOfWeek  = bcdToDec(Wire.read());
  *dayOfMonth = bcdToDec(Wire.read());
  *month      = bcdToDec(Wire.read());
  *year       = bcdToDec(Wire.read());
}

void setDS3232time(byte second, byte minute, byte hour, byte dayOfWeek, byte dayOfMonth, byte month, byte year)
// sets time and date data to DS3232
{
  Wire.beginTransmission(DS3232_I2C_ADDRESS);  
  Wire.write(0); // sends 00h - seconds register
  Wire.write(decToBcd(second));     // set seconds
  Wire.write(decToBcd(minute));     // set minutes
  Wire.write(decToBcd(hour));       // set hours
  Wire.write(decToBcd(dayOfWeek));  // set day of week (1=Sunday, 7=Saturday)
  Wire.write(decToBcd(dayOfMonth)); // set date (1~31)
  Wire.write(decToBcd(month));      // set month
  Wire.write(decToBcd(year));       // set year (0~99)
  Wire.endTransmission();
}

void loop()
{
  // get the number of milliseconds this sketch has been running
  unsigned long now = millis();

  // run again if it's been 60 seconds since we last ran
  if (now - lastRun >= RUN_INTERVAL_MILLIS) {

    // remember 'now' as the last time we ran the choreo
    lastRun = now;
    Serial.println("Getting sensor values...");
    // get the values from A0 to A3 and D7, D8
    analog0 = analogRead(0);
    analog1 = analogRead(1);
    analog2 = analogRead(2);
    analog3 = analogRead(3);
    d7 = digitalRead(digital7);
    d8 = digitalRead(digital8);

    Serial.println("Appending value to spreadsheet...");
    // we need a Process object to send a Choreo request to Temboo
    TembooChoreo AppendRowChoreo;

    // invoke the Temboo client
    // NOTE that the client must be reinvoked and repopulated with
    // appropriate arguments each time its run() method is called.
    AppendRowChoreo.begin();

    // set Temboo account credentials
    AppendRowChoreo.setAccountName(TEMBOO_ACCOUNT);
    AppendRowChoreo.setAppKeyName(TEMBOO_APP_KEY_NAME);
    AppendRowChoreo.setAppKey(TEMBOO_APP_KEY);

    // identify the Temboo Library choreo to run (Google > Spreadsheets > AppendRow)
    AppendRowChoreo.setChoreo("/Library/Google/Spreadsheets/AppendRow");
    // your Google username (usually your email address)
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("Username", GOOGLE_USERNAME);
    // your Google account password
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("Password", GOOGLE_PASSWORD);
    // the title of the spreadsheet you want to append to
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("SpreadsheetTitle", SPREADSHEET_TITLE);

    // get time and date from RTC
    readDS3232time(&second, &minute, &hour, &dayOfWeek, &dayOfMonth, &month, &year);

    // smoosh all the sensor, date and time data into a String
    // CSV creation starts here!
    String rowData(analog0);
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += analog1;
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += analog2;
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += analog3;
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += d7;
    rowData += ",";
    rowData += d8;    
    rowData += ",";
    // insert date
    rowData += dayOfMonth; 
    rowData += "/";
    rowData += month; 
    rowData += "/20";
    rowData += year; 
    rowData += ",";    
    // insert time    
    rowData += hour;  
    if (minute<10)
    {
        rowData += "0";  
    }    
    rowData += minute; 
    rowData += "."; 
    if (second<10)
    {
        rowData += "0";  
    }    
    rowData += second; 
    rowData += "h";     

    // add the RowData input item
    AppendRowChoreo.addInput("RowData", rowData);

    // run the Choreo and wait for the results
    // The return code (returnCode) will indicate success or failure 
    unsigned int returnCode = AppendRowChoreo.run();

    // return code of zero (0) means success
    if (returnCode == 0) {
      Serial.println("Success! Appended " + rowData);
      Serial.println("");
    } else {
      // return code of anything other than zero means failure  
      // read and display any error messages
      while (AppendRowChoreo.available()) {
        char c = AppendRowChoreo.read();
        Serial.print(c);
      }
    }
    AppendRowChoreo.close();
  }
}

… which in our example resulted with the following:

Arduino Yun Google Docs Spreadsheet time date data

… and here is a video that shows how the spreadsheet updates in real time across multiple devices:

 Conclusion

It’s no secret that the Yún isn’t the cheapest devleopment board around, however the ease of use as demonstrated in this tutorial shows that the time saved in setup and application is more than worth the purchase price of the board and extra Temboo credits if required.

And if you’re interested in learning more about Arduino, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Tutorial – Google Docs and the Arduino Yún appeared first on tronixstuff.

Ott
29

Tutorial – twitter and the Arduino Yún

arduino, lesson, temboo, tronixstuff, tutorial, twitter, wifi, Yun Commenti disabilitati su Tutorial – twitter and the Arduino Yún 

Introduction

After spending almost $100 on an Arduino Yún to see what the fuss was about, it seemed like a good idea to find and demonstrate some uses for it. So in this article we’ll examine how your Yún can send a tweet using some simple example sketches – and the first of several Arduino Yún-specific tutorials.

Getting Started

If you haven’t already done so, ensure your Arduino Yún can connect to your network via WiFi or cable – and get a Temboo account (we run through this here). And you need (at the time of writing) IDE version 1.5.4 which can be downloaded from the Arduino website. Finally, if you don’t have a twitter account – go get one.

Arduino Yun Yún front

Sending a tweet from your Yún

Thanks to Arduino and Temboo, 99% of the work is already done for you. To send a tweet requires the Arduino sketch, a header file with your Temboo account details, and also the need to register an application in the twitter development console.

Don’t panic, just follow the “Get Set Up” instructions from the following page. When you do – make sure you’re logged into the Temboo website, as it will then populate the header file with your Temboo details for you. During the twitter application stage, don’t forget to save your OAuth settings which will appear in the “OAuth Tool” tab in the twitter developer page, for example:

Arduino Yun OAuth twitter

… as they are copied into every sketch starting from the line:

const String TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN =

When you save the sketch, make sure you place the header file with the name TembooAccount.h in the same folder as your sketch. You know this has been successful when opening the sketch, as you will see the header file in a second tab, for example:

Arduino Yun sketch header file

Finally, if you’re sharing code with others, remove your OAuth and TembooAccount.h details otherwise they can send tweets on your behalf.

OK – enough warnings. If you’ve successfully created your Temboo account, got your twitter OAuth details, fed them all into the sketch and header file, then saved (!) and uploaded your sketch to the Arduino Yún - a short tweet will appear on your timeline, for example:

Arduino Yun twiiter

If nothing appears on your twitter feed, open the serial monitor in the IDE and see what messages appear. It will feed back to you the error message from twitter, which generally indicates the problem.

Moving on, let’s examine how to send tweets with your own information. In the following example sketch we send the value resulting from analogRead(0) and text combined together in one line. Don’t forget twitter messages (tweets) have a maximum length of 140 characters. We’ve moved all the tweet-sending into one function tweet(), which you can then call from your sketch when required – upon an event and so on. The text and data to send is combined into a String in line 26:

#include <Bridge.h>
#include <Temboo.h>
#include "TembooAccount.h" // contains Temboo account information
                           // as described in the footer comment below

const String TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN = "aaaa";
const String TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN_SECRET = "bbbb";
const String TWITTER_CONSUMER_KEY = "ccccc";
const String TWITTER_CONSUMER_SECRET = "dddd";

int analogZero;

void setup() 
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  delay(4000);
  while(!Serial);
  Bridge.begin();
}

void tweet()
{
    Serial.println("Running tweet() function");

    // define the text of the tweet we want to send
    String tweetText("The value of A0 is " + String(analogZero) + ". Hooray for twitter");

    TembooChoreo StatusesUpdateChoreo;
    // invoke the Temboo client
    // NOTE that the client must be reinvoked, and repopulated with
    // appropriate arguments, each time its run() method is called.
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.begin();
    // set Temboo account credentials
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.setAccountName(TEMBOO_ACCOUNT);
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.setAppKeyName(TEMBOO_APP_KEY_NAME);
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.setAppKey(TEMBOO_APP_KEY);
    // identify the Temboo Library choreo to run (Twitter > Tweets > StatusesUpdate)
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.setChoreo("/Library/Twitter/Tweets/StatusesUpdate");
    // add the Twitter account information
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.addInput("AccessToken", TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN);
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.addInput("AccessTokenSecret", TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN_SECRET);
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.addInput("ConsumerKey", TWITTER_CONSUMER_KEY);    
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.addInput("ConsumerSecret", TWITTER_CONSUMER_SECRET);
    // and the tweet we want to send
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.addInput("StatusUpdate", tweetText);
    // tell the Process to run and wait for the results. The 
    // return code (returnCode) will tell us whether the Temboo client 
    // was able to send our request to the Temboo servers
    unsigned int returnCode = StatusesUpdateChoreo.run();
    // a return code of zero (0) means everything worked
    if (returnCode == 0) {
        Serial.println("Success! Tweet sent!");
    } else {
      // a non-zero return code means there was an error
      // read and print the error message
      while (StatusesUpdateChoreo.available()) {
        char c = StatusesUpdateChoreo.read();
        Serial.print(c);
      }
    } 
    StatusesUpdateChoreo.close();
    // do nothing for the next 90 seconds
    Serial.println("Waiting...");
    delay(90000);
}

void loop()
{
  // get some data from A0. 
  analogZero=analogRead(0);
  tweet();
  do {} while (1); // do nothing
}

Which results with the following example tweet:

Arduino Yun sends twitter data

With the previous example sketch you can build your own functionality around the tweet() function to send data when required. Recall that the data to send as a tweet is combined into a String at line 26.

Please note that you can’t blast out tweets like a machine, for two reasons – one, twitter doesn’t like rapid automated tweeting – and two, you only get 1000 free calls on your Temboo account per month. If you need more, the account needs to be upgraded at a cost.

Conclusion

Well the Yún gives us another way to send data out via twitter. It wasn’t the cheapest way of doing so, however it was quite simple. And thus the trade-off with the Arduino platform – simplicity vs. price. If there is demand, we’ll examine more connected functions with the Yún.

And if you’re interested in learning more about Arduino, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Tutorial – twitter and the Arduino Yún appeared first on tronixstuff.

Use the Maxim MAX7219 LED display driver with Arduino in Chapter 56 of our Arduino Tutorials. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Introduction

Sooner or later Arduino enthusiasts and beginners alike will come across the MAX7219 IC. And for good reason, it’s a simple and somewhat inexpensive method of controlling 64 LEDs in either matrix or numeric display form. Furthermore they can be chained together to control two or more units for even more LEDs. Overall – they’re a lot of fun and can also be quite useful, so let’s get started.

Here’s an example of a MAX7219 and another IC which is a functional equivalent, the AS1107 from Austria Microsystems. You might not see the AS1107 around much, but it can be cheaper – so don’t be afraid to use that instead:

MAX7219 AS1107

When shopping for MAX7219s you may notice the wild price fluctuations between various sellers. We’ve researched that and have a separate article for your consideration.

 At first glance you may think that it takes a lot of real estate, but it saves some as well. As mentioned earlier, the MAX7219 can completely control 64 individual LEDs – including maintaining equal brightness, and allowing you to adjust the brightness of the LEDs either with hardware or software (or both). It can refresh the LEDs at around 800 Hz, so no more flickering, uneven LED displays.

You can even switch the display off for power saving mode, and still send it data while it is off. And another good thing – when powered up, it keeps the LEDs off, so no wacky displays for the first seconds of operation. For more technical information, here is the data sheet: MAX7219.pdf. Now to put it to work for us – we’ll demonstrate using one or more 8 x 8 LED matrix displays, as well as 8 digits of 7-segment LED numbers.

Before continuing, download and install the LedControl Arduino library as it is essential for using the MAX7219.

Controlling LED matrix displays with the MAX7219

First of all, let’s examine the hardware side of things. Here is the pinout diagram for the MAX7219:

MAX7219 pinout

The MAX7219 drives eight LEDs at a time, and by rapidly switching banks of eight your eyes don’t see the changes. Wiring up a matrix is very simple – if you have a common matrix with the following schematic:

LED matrix pinoutsconnect the MAX7219 pins labelled DP, A~F to the row pins respectively, and the MAX7219 pins labelled DIG0~7 to the column pins respectively. A total example circuit with the above matrix  is as follows:

MAX7219 example LED matrix circuit

The circuit is quite straight forward, except we have a resistor between 5V and MAX7219 pin 18. The MAX7219 is a constant-current LED driver, and the value of the resistor is used to set the current flow to the LEDs. Have a look at table eleven on page eleven of the data sheet:

MAX7219 resistor tableYou’ll need to know the voltage and forward current for your LED matrix or numeric display, then match the value on the table. E.g. if you have a 2V 20 mA LED, your resistor value will be 28kΩ (the values are in kΩ). Finally, the MAX7219 serial in, load and clock pins will go to Arduino digital pins which are specified in the sketch. We’ll get to that in the moment, but before that let’s return to the matrix modules.

In the last few months there has been a proliferation of inexpensive kits that contain a MAX7219 or equivalent, and an LED matrix. These are great for experimenting with and can save you a lot of work – some examples of which are shown below:

MAX7219 LED matrix modules

At the top is an example from ebay, and the pair on the bottom are the units from a recent kit review. We’ll use these for our demonstrations as well.

Now for the sketch. You need the following two lines at the beginning of the sketch:

#include "LedControl.h" 
LedControl lc=LedControl(12,11,10,1);

The first pulls in the library, and the second line sets up an instance to control. The four parameters are as follows:

  1. the digital pin connected to pin 1 of the MAX7219 (“data in”)
  2. the digital pin connected to pin 13 of the MAX7219 (“CLK or clock”)
  3. the digital pin connected to pin 12 of the MAX7219 (“LOAD”)
  4. The number of MAX7219s connected.

If you have more than one MAX7219, connect the DOUT (“data out”) pin of the first MAX7219 to pin 1 of the second, and so on. However the CLK and LOAD pins are all connected in parallel and then back to the Arduino.

Next, two more vital functions that you’d normally put in void setup():

lc.shutdown(0,false);
lc.setIntensity(0,8);

The first line above turns the LEDs connected to the MAX7219 on. If you set TRUE, you can send data to the MAX7219 but the LEDs will stay off. The second line adjusts the brightness of the LEDs in sixteen stages. For both of those functions (and all others from the LedControl) the first parameter is the number of the MAX7219 connected. If you have one, the parameter is zero… for two MAX7219s, it’s 1 and so on.

Finally, to turn an individual LED in the matrix on or off, use:

lc.setLed(0,col,row,true);

which turns on an LED positioned at col, row connected to MAX7219 #1. Change TRUE to FALSE to turn it off. These functions are demonstrated in the following sketch:

#include "LedControl.h" //  need the library
LedControl lc=LedControl(12,11,10,1); // 

// pin 12 is connected to the MAX7219 pin 1
// pin 11 is connected to the CLK pin 13
// pin 10 is connected to LOAD pin 12
// 1 as we are only using 1 MAX7219

void setup()
{
  // the zero refers to the MAX7219 number, it is zero for 1 chip
  lc.shutdown(0,false);// turn off power saving, enables display
  lc.setIntensity(0,8);// sets brightness (0~15 possible values)
  lc.clearDisplay(0);// clear screen
}
void loop()
{
  for (int row=0; row<8; row++)
  {
    for (int col=0; col<8; col++)
    {
      lc.setLed(0,col,row,true); // turns on LED at col, row
      delay(25);
    }
  }

  for (int row=0; row<8; row++)
  {
    for (int col=0; col<8; col++)
    {
      lc.setLed(0,col,row,false); // turns off LED at col, row
      delay(25);
    }
  }
}

And a quick video of the results:

How about controlling two MAX7219s? Or more? The hardware modifications are easy – connect the serial data out pin from your first MAX7219 to the data in pin on the second (and so on), and the LOAD and CLOCK pins from the first MAX7219 connect to the second (and so on). You will of course still need the 5V, GND, resistor, capacitors etc. for the second and subsequent MAX7219.

You will also need to make a few changes in your sketch. The first is to tell it how many MAX7219s you’re using in the following line:

LedControl lc=LedControl(12,11,10,X);

by replacing X with the quantity. Then whenever you’re using  a MAX7219 function, replace the (previously used) zero with the number of the MAX7219 you wish to address. They are numbered from zero upwards, with the MAX7219 directly connected to the Arduino as unit zero, then one etc. To demonstrate this, we replicate the previous example but with two MAX7219s:

#include "LedControl.h" //  need the library
LedControl lc=LedControl(12,11,10,2); // 

// pin 12 is connected to the MAX7219 pin 1
// pin 11 is connected to the CLK pin 13
// pin 10 is connected to LOAD pin 12
// 1 as we are only using 1 MAX7219

void setup()
{
  lc.shutdown(0,false);// turn off power saving, enables display
  lc.setIntensity(0,8);// sets brightness (0~15 possible values)
  lc.clearDisplay(0);// clear screen

  lc.shutdown(1,false);// turn off power saving, enables display
  lc.setIntensity(1,8);// sets brightness (0~15 possible values)
  lc.clearDisplay(1);// clear screen
}

void loop()
{
  for (int row=0; row<8; row++)
  {
    for (int col=0; col<8; col++)
    {
      lc.setLed(0,col,row,true); // turns on LED at col, row
      lc.setLed(1,col,row,false); // turns on LED at col, row
      delay(25);
    }
  }

  for (int row=0; row<8; row++)
  {
    for (int col=0; col<8; col++)
    {
      lc.setLed(0,col,row,false); // turns off LED at col, row
      lc.setLed(1,col,row,true); // turns on LED at col, row      
      delay(25);
    }
  }
}

And again, a quick demonstration:

Another fun use of the MAX7219 and LED matrices is to display scrolling text. For the case of simplicity we’ll use the LedControl library and the two LED matrix modules from the previous examples.

First our example sketch – it is quite long however most of this is due to defining the characters for each letter of the alphabet and so on. We’ll explain it at the other end!

// based on an orginal sketch by Arduino forum member "danigom"
// http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?action=profile;u=188950

#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
#include <LedControl.h>

const int numDevices = 2;      // number of MAX7219s used
const long scrollDelay = 75;   // adjust scrolling speed

unsigned long bufferLong [14] = {0}; 

LedControl lc=LedControl(12,11,10,numDevices);

prog_uchar scrollText[] PROGMEM ={
    "  THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPED OVER THE LAZY DOG 1234567890 the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog   \0"};

void setup(){
    for (int x=0; x<numDevices; x++){
        lc.shutdown(x,false);       //The MAX72XX is in power-saving mode on startup
        lc.setIntensity(x,8);       // Set the brightness to default value
        lc.clearDisplay(x);         // and clear the display
    }
}

void loop(){ 
    scrollMessage(scrollText);
    scrollFont();
}

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

prog_uchar font5x7 [] PROGMEM = {      //Numeric Font Matrix (Arranged as 7x font data + 1x kerning data)
    B00000000,	//Space (Char 0x20)
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    6,

    B10000000,	//!
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B10000000,
    2,

    B10100000,	//"
    B10100000,
    B10100000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    4,

    B01010000,	//#
    B01010000,
    B11111000,
    B01010000,
    B11111000,
    B01010000,
    B01010000,
    6,

    B00100000,	//$
    B01111000,
    B10100000,
    B01110000,
    B00101000,
    B11110000,
    B00100000,
    6,

    B11000000,	//%
    B11001000,
    B00010000,
    B00100000,
    B01000000,
    B10011000,
    B00011000,
    6,

    B01100000,	//&
    B10010000,
    B10100000,
    B01000000,
    B10101000,
    B10010000,
    B01101000,
    6,

    B11000000,	//'
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    3,

    B00100000,	//(
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B01000000,
    B00100000,
    4,

    B10000000,	//)
    B01000000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    4,

    B00000000,	//*
    B00100000,
    B10101000,
    B01110000,
    B10101000,
    B00100000,
    B00000000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//+
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B11111000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00000000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B11000000,
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    3,

    B00000000,	//-
    B00000000,
    B11111000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//.
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B11000000,
    B11000000,
    3,

    B00000000,	///
    B00001000,
    B00010000,
    B00100000,
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    B00000000,
    6,

    B01110000,	//0
    B10001000,
    B10011000,
    B10101000,
    B11001000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B01000000,	//1
    B11000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B11100000,
    4,

    B01110000,	//2
    B10001000,
    B00001000,
    B00010000,
    B00100000,
    B01000000,
    B11111000,
    6,

    B11111000,	//3
    B00010000,
    B00100000,
    B00010000,
    B00001000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B00010000,	//4
    B00110000,
    B01010000,
    B10010000,
    B11111000,
    B00010000,
    B00010000,
    6,

    B11111000,	//5
    B10000000,
    B11110000,
    B00001000,
    B00001000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B00110000,	//6
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    B11110000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B11111000,	//7
    B10001000,
    B00001000,
    B00010000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    6,

    B01110000,	//8
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B01110000,	//9
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01111000,
    B00001000,
    B00010000,
    B01100000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//:
    B11000000,
    B11000000,
    B00000000,
    B11000000,
    B11000000,
    B00000000,
    3,

    B00000000,	//;
    B11000000,
    B11000000,
    B00000000,
    B11000000,
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    3,

    B00010000,	//<
    B00100000,
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    B01000000,
    B00100000,
    B00010000,
    5,

    B00000000,	//=
    B00000000,
    B11111000,
    B00000000,
    B11111000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    6,

    B10000000,	//>
    B01000000,
    B00100000,
    B00010000,
    B00100000,
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    5,

    B01110000,	//?
    B10001000,
    B00001000,
    B00010000,
    B00100000,
    B00000000,
    B00100000,
    6,

    B01110000,	//@
    B10001000,
    B00001000,
    B01101000,
    B10101000,
    B10101000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B01110000,	//A
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B11111000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B11110000,	//B
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B11110000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B11110000,
    6,

    B01110000,	//C
    B10001000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B11100000,	//D
    B10010000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10010000,
    B11100000,
    6,

    B11111000,	//E
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B11110000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B11111000,
    6,

    B11111000,	//F
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B11110000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    6,

    B01110000,	//G
    B10001000,
    B10000000,
    B10111000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01111000,
    6,

    B10001000,	//H
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B11111000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B11100000,	//I
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B11100000,
    4,

    B00111000,	//J
    B00010000,
    B00010000,
    B00010000,
    B00010000,
    B10010000,
    B01100000,
    6,

    B10001000,	//K
    B10010000,
    B10100000,
    B11000000,
    B10100000,
    B10010000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B10000000,	//L
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B11111000,
    6,

    B10001000,	//M
    B11011000,
    B10101000,
    B10101000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B10001000,	//N
    B10001000,
    B11001000,
    B10101000,
    B10011000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B01110000,	//O
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B11110000,	//P
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B11110000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    6,

    B01110000,	//Q
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10101000,
    B10010000,
    B01101000,
    6,

    B11110000,	//R
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B11110000,
    B10100000,
    B10010000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B01111000,	//S
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B01110000,
    B00001000,
    B00001000,
    B11110000,
    6,

    B11111000,	//T
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    6,

    B10001000,	//U
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B10001000,	//V
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01010000,
    B00100000,
    6,

    B10001000,	//W
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10101000,
    B10101000,
    B10101000,
    B01010000,
    6,

    B10001000,	//X
    B10001000,
    B01010000,
    B00100000,
    B01010000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B10001000,	//Y
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01010000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    6,

    B11111000,	//Z
    B00001000,
    B00010000,
    B00100000,
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    B11111000,
    6,

    B11100000,	//[
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B11100000,
    4,

    B00000000,	//(Backward Slash)
    B10000000,
    B01000000,
    B00100000,
    B00010000,
    B00001000,
    B00000000,
    6,

    B11100000,	//]
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B00100000,
    B11100000,
    4,

    B00100000,	//^
    B01010000,
    B10001000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//_
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B11111000,
    6,

    B10000000,	//`
    B01000000,
    B00100000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    4,

    B00000000,	//a
    B00000000,
    B01110000,
    B00001000,
    B01111000,
    B10001000,
    B01111000,
    6,

    B10000000,	//b
    B10000000,
    B10110000,
    B11001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B11110000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//c
    B00000000,
    B01110000,
    B10001000,
    B10000000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B00001000,	//d
    B00001000,
    B01101000,
    B10011000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01111000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//e
    B00000000,
    B01110000,
    B10001000,
    B11111000,
    B10000000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B00110000,	//f
    B01001000,
    B01000000,
    B11100000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//g
    B01111000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01111000,
    B00001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B10000000,	//h
    B10000000,
    B10110000,
    B11001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B01000000,	//i
    B00000000,
    B11000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B11100000,
    4,

    B00010000,	//j
    B00000000,
    B00110000,
    B00010000,
    B00010000,
    B10010000,
    B01100000,
    5,

    B10000000,	//k
    B10000000,
    B10010000,
    B10100000,
    B11000000,
    B10100000,
    B10010000,
    5,

    B11000000,	//l
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B11100000,
    4,

    B00000000,	//m
    B00000000,
    B11010000,
    B10101000,
    B10101000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//n
    B00000000,
    B10110000,
    B11001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//o
    B00000000,
    B01110000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//p
    B00000000,
    B11110000,
    B10001000,
    B11110000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//q
    B00000000,
    B01101000,
    B10011000,
    B01111000,
    B00001000,
    B00001000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//r
    B00000000,
    B10110000,
    B11001000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//s
    B00000000,
    B01110000,
    B10000000,
    B01110000,
    B00001000,
    B11110000,
    6,

    B01000000,	//t
    B01000000,
    B11100000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B01001000,
    B00110000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//u
    B00000000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10011000,
    B01101000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//v
    B00000000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01010000,
    B00100000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//w
    B00000000,
    B10001000,
    B10101000,
    B10101000,
    B10101000,
    B01010000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//x
    B00000000,
    B10001000,
    B01010000,
    B00100000,
    B01010000,
    B10001000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//y
    B00000000,
    B10001000,
    B10001000,
    B01111000,
    B00001000,
    B01110000,
    6,

    B00000000,	//z
    B00000000,
    B11111000,
    B00010000,
    B00100000,
    B01000000,
    B11111000,
    6,

    B00100000,	//{
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B00100000,
    4,

    B10000000,	//|
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    B10000000,
    2,

    B10000000,	//}
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B00100000,
    B01000000,
    B01000000,
    B10000000,
    4,

    B00000000,	//~
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B01101000,
    B10010000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    6,

    B01100000,	// (Char 0x7F)
    B10010000,
    B10010000,
    B01100000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    B00000000,
    5
};

void scrollFont() {
    for (int counter=0x20;counter<0x80;counter++){
        loadBufferLong(counter);
        delay(500);
    }
}

// Scroll Message
void scrollMessage(prog_uchar * messageString) {
    int counter = 0;
    int myChar=0;
    do {
        // read back a char 
        myChar =  pgm_read_byte_near(messageString + counter); 
        if (myChar != 0){
            loadBufferLong(myChar);
        }
        counter++;
    } 
    while (myChar != 0);
}
// Load character into scroll buffer
void loadBufferLong(int ascii){
    if (ascii >= 0x20 && ascii <=0x7f){
        for (int a=0;a<7;a++){                      // Loop 7 times for a 5x7 font
            unsigned long c = pgm_read_byte_near(font5x7 + ((ascii - 0x20) * 8) + a);     // Index into character table to get row data
            unsigned long x = bufferLong [a*2];     // Load current scroll buffer
            x = x | c;                              // OR the new character onto end of current
            bufferLong [a*2] = x;                   // Store in buffer
        }
        byte count = pgm_read_byte_near(font5x7 +((ascii - 0x20) * 8) + 7);     // Index into character table for kerning data
        for (byte x=0; x<count;x++){
            rotateBufferLong();
            printBufferLong();
            delay(scrollDelay);
        }
    }
}
// Rotate the buffer
void rotateBufferLong(){
    for (int a=0;a<7;a++){                      // Loop 7 times for a 5x7 font
        unsigned long x = bufferLong [a*2];     // Get low buffer entry
        byte b = bitRead(x,31);                 // Copy high order bit that gets lost in rotation
        x = x<<1;                               // Rotate left one bit
        bufferLong [a*2] = x;                   // Store new low buffer
        x = bufferLong [a*2+1];                 // Get high buffer entry
        x = x<<1;                               // Rotate left one bit
        bitWrite(x,0,b);                        // Store saved bit
        bufferLong [a*2+1] = x;                 // Store new high buffer
    }
}  
// Display Buffer on LED matrix
void printBufferLong(){
  for (int a=0;a<7;a++){                    // Loop 7 times for a 5x7 font
    unsigned long x = bufferLong [a*2+1];   // Get high buffer entry
    byte y = x;                             // Mask off first character
    lc.setRow(3,a,y);                       // Send row to relevent MAX7219 chip
    x = bufferLong [a*2];                   // Get low buffer entry
    y = (x>>24);                            // Mask off second character
    lc.setRow(2,a,y);                       // Send row to relevent MAX7219 chip
    y = (x>>16);                            // Mask off third character
    lc.setRow(1,a,y);                       // Send row to relevent MAX7219 chip
    y = (x>>8);                             // Mask off forth character
    lc.setRow(0,a,y);                       // Send row to relevent MAX7219 chip
  }
}

The pertinent parts are at the top of the sketch – the following line sets the number of MAX7219s in the hardware:

const int numDevices = 2;

The following can be adjusted to change the speed of text scrolling:

const long scrollDelay = 75;

… then place the text to scroll in the following (for example):

prog_uchar scrollText[] PROGMEM ={
    "  THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPED OVER THE LAZY DOG 1234567890 the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog   \0"};

Finally – to scroll the text on demand, use the following:

scrollMessage(scrollText);

You can then incorporate the code into your own sketches. And a video of the example sketch in action:

Although we used the LedControl library, there are many others out there for scrolling text. One interesting example is Parola  – which is incredibly customisable. If you’re looking for a much larger device to scroll text, check out the Freetronics DMD range.

Controlling LED numeric displays with the MAX7219

Using the MAX7219 and the LedControl library you can also drive numeric LED displays – up to eight digits from the one MAX7219. This gives you the ability to make various numeric displays that are clear to read and easy to control. When shopping around for numeric LED displays, make sure you have the common-cathode type.

Connecting numeric displays is quite simple, consider the following schematic which should appear familiar by now:

MAX7219 7-segment schematic

The schematic shows the connections for modules or groups of up to eight digits. Each digit’s A~F and dp (decimal point) anodes connect together to the MAX7219, and each digit’s cathode connects in order as well. The MAX7219 will display each digit in turn by using one cathode at a time. Of course if you want more than eight digits, connect another MAX7219 just as we did with the LED matrices previously.

The required code in the sketch is identical to the LED matrix code, however to display individual digits we use:

lc.setDigit(A, B, C, D);

where A is the MAX7219 we’re using, B is the digit to use (from a possible 0 to 7), C is the digit to display (0~9… if you use 10~15 it will display A~F respectively) and D is false/true (digit on or off). You can also send basic characters such as a dash “-” with the following:

lc.setChar(A, B,'-',false);

Now let’s put together an example of eight digits:

#include "LedControl.h" //  need the library
LedControl lc=LedControl(12,11,10,1); // lc is our object
// pin 12 is connected to the MAX7219 pin 1
// pin 11 is connected to the CLK pin 13
// pin 10 is connected to LOAD pin 12
// 1 as we are only using 1 MAX7219
void setup()
{
  // the zero refers to the MAX7219 number, it is zero for 1 chip
  lc.shutdown(0,false);// turn off power saving, enables display
  lc.setIntensity(0,8);// sets brightness (0~15 possible values)
  lc.clearDisplay(0);// clear screen
}
void loop()
{
  for (int a=0; a<8; a++)
  {
    lc.setDigit(0,a,a,true);
    delay(100);
  }
  for (int a=0; a<8; a++)
  {
    lc.setDigit(0,a,8,1);
    delay(100);
  }
  for (int a=0; a<8; a++)
  {
    lc.setDigit(0,a,0,false);
    delay(100);
  }
  for (int a=0; a<8; a++)
  {
    lc.setChar(0,a,' ',false);
    delay(100);
  }
  for (int a=0; a<8; a++)
  {
    lc.setChar(0,a,'-',false);
    delay(100);
  }
  for (int a=0; a<8; a++)
  {
    lc.setChar(0,a,' ',false);
    delay(100);
  }
}

and the sketch in action:

Conclusion

By now you’re on your way to controlling an incredibly useful part with your Arduino. Don’t forget – there are many variations of Arduino libraries for the MAX7219, we can’t cover each one – so have fun and experiment with them. And if you enjoyed the tutorial, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Tutorial – Arduino and the MAX7219 LED Display Driver IC appeared first on tronixstuff.

Set
18

First look – Arduino Yún

AR9331, arduino, Atheros, iot, lesson, Linino, Linux, review, temboo, tronixstuff, tutorial, wifi, Yun Commenti disabilitati su First look – Arduino Yún 

Introduction

After being announced in May this year, the new Arduino Yún has arrived in the crowded marketplace – and I snapped up one of the first to arrive in Australia for an initial review. The purpose of which is to run through the out of box experience, and to see how easy it was to get the Yún working with the promised new features.

[Update - over time we'll publish tutorials specifically for the Yún, which are listed here.]

The Yún introduces some interesting new combinations of hardware and connectivity, all within the familiar form-factor. Which gives us plenty to examine and write about, so let’s get started. First, a quick look around the Yún:

Arduino Yun Yún front

Notice the stickers on the header sockets, useful for beginners or the absent-minded…

Arduino Yún Yun right side

The usual TX/RX and D13 LEDs, plus notifiers for power, WiFi, LAN and USB use…

Arduino Yún Yun sockets

Ethernet, USB programming, USB host…

Arduino Yun Yún top side

Again with the stickers…

Arduino Yun Bottom Yún

The rear is quite busy. You can also see “Made in Taiwan” – a first for Arduino. I believe the reason for this was due to the new Atheros chipset requirements. Did you notice the multiple reset buttons? There are three – one for the Arduino, one for wifi and one to reboot Linino. As you can see there’s a lot of circuity on the bottom of the Yún, so it would be prudent to use some short standoffs to elevate the board and protect the bottom. Before moving on, you might like the following video where the Arduino team introduce the Yún:

Specifications

The Yún is based around the Arduino Leonardo-specification board – thus you have the ATmega32U4 microcontroller and the usual Leonardo functions. Note you cannot feed wild DC voltages into the Vin pin – it must be a regulated 5V. And the DC socket has gone, so for a solid connection you might want to make or buy your own power shield.

However there is so much more… underneath a small metal shield below the digital I/O pins is an Atheros AR9331 CPU running a Linux distribution based on OpenWRT named Linino. This Atheros part of the board is connected to a microSD socket, 10/100 Ethernet port, a USB 2.0 socket for host-mode functions and also has IEEE 802.11b/g/n WiFi, and Power-over-Ethernet support (with an optional adaptor).

And all of that is connected to the Arduino side of things via a simple serial “bridge” connection (with it’s own library) – which gives the Arduino side of the board very simple methods of controlling the other onboard hardware.

Getting started with the Yún WiFi

First thing is to download and install the new IDE, version 1.5.4. This is for Due and Yún, so keep your older installations as well. On the general Arduino side of things nothing has changed, so we’ll move on to the more interesting side of the board. The first of these is to setup and experiment with the onboard WiFi. After connecting your board to USB for power, you can connect to it with your PC’s WiFi:

Arduino Yun Yún office wifi

… at which point you connect to the Yún network. Then visit 192.168.240.1 from a web browser, and you’re presented with a page that asks for the default password, which is … “arduino”:

Arduino Yún Yun wifi setup

At which point you’re presented with the relevant details for your Yún:

Arduino Yún  Yun wifi details

… such as the IP address, MAC address, etc. Make note of your MAC address, you might need it later. From here you can configure the Yún WiFi details, for example the name and password, and also the details of your existing WiFi network which can be used to access the Yún. Once you save those, the Yún reboots and tells you to connect the PC back to the existing WiFi network:

Arduino Yun Yún WiFi setup complete

If for some reason it doesn’t work or you entered the wrong settings – hold down the “WLAN RST” button (next to the USB host socket) for five seconds. This sets the WiFi details in the Yun back to the default … and you can start all over again.

Note that the Yún’s preset IP of 192.168.240.1 may not be suitable for your own network. For example, if your home router is 10.1.1.1 you need to do some detective work to find out the IP address for the Yún. Head into your router’s administration pages and look for your DHCP Client Log. It will show a list of devices that are connected to the network, including their MAC and IP address – for example:

Arduino Yún Yun new IP address DHCPThen it’s a simple matter of finding the MAC address in the list and the matching IP. Once you have the IP address, enter that into a web browser and after being prompted for the Yún’s password, you’re back to the welcome page with the IP, MAC addresses etc.

WiFi Sketch Uploading

Once your Yún is on the same WiFi network as the PC running the IDE – you can upload a sketch over WiFi! This is possible due to the bridge between the Atheros section on the board and the Arduino hardware. Just select the board type as normal in the IDE, and the port (the IP address version):

Arduino Yun WiFi sketch upload  Yún

… then hit Upload as normal, enter the password:

Arduino Yun WiFi sketch upload  Yún

and you’re done. Awesome.

Console-based control of Arduino over WiFi

There’s a neat example that demonstrates how you can control the Arduino over the WiFi using a console terminal on the PC. Upload this sketch (from http://arduino.cc/en/Guide/ArduinoYun#toc13):

#include <Console.h>

const int ledPin = 13; // the pin that the LED is attached to
int incomingByte;      // a variable to read incoming serial data into

void setup() {
  // initialize serial communication:
  Bridge.begin();
  Console.begin(); 

  while (!Console){
    ; // wait for Console port to connect.
  }
  Console.println("You're connected to the Console!!!!");
  // initialize the LED pin as an output:
  pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT);
}

void loop() {
  // see if there's incoming serial data:
  if (Console.available() > 0) {
    // read the oldest byte in the serial buffer:
    incomingByte = Console.read();
    // if it's a capital H (ASCII 72), turn on the LED:
    if (incomingByte == 'H') {
      digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH);
    } 
    // if it's an L (ASCII 76) turn off the LED:
    if (incomingByte == 'L') {
      digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW);
    }
  }
}

Then load your terminal software. We use PuTTY on Windows. Run the terminal software, then login as root, then telnet to “localhost 6571″:

Arduino Yún  Yun terminal console putty

You can then send characters to the Yún just as you would with a USB-connected Arduino via the serial monitor. With the example above you’re turning the D13 LED on and off, but you can get the idea.

The “Internet of Things”

Arduino has teamed up with a service called “Temboo” – which gives you over 100 APIs that your Yún can hook up with to do a myriad of things, such as send tweets, get weather data from Yahoo, interact with Dropbox, etc. This is done easily and explained quite well at the Temboo website. After signing up for Temboo (one account seems to be free at the moment) we tried the Yahoo weather API.

You enter the parameters using an online form in Temboo (in our example, the address of the area whose weather forecast we required), and the Temboo site gives you the required Arduno sketch and header file to upload. And you’re done. With this particular example, I wanted the weather in Sydney CBD – and once running the data is returned to the serial monitor, for example:

Temboo Arduino Yun yahoo weather Yún

It was great to see that work the very first time, and a credit to Temboo and Arduino for making it happen. But how?

There is a Temboo client in the Linino OS, which is the gateway to the API via WiFi, and also communicates with the Arduino via the serial bridge. The Arduino Temboo library can then interact with the Linino client without complex code. The weather data is then returned back from the Internet via the Temboo client and fed to the Arduino serial port, where you can parse it with your own code. This looks like a lot of fun, and also could be quite useful – for example capturing data and sending it to a Google Docs spreadsheet. For more information, check out the Temboo website.

However you can delve deeper and create your own APIs, matching code – and perhaps other services will develop their own APIs in the near future. But for now, it’s a good start.

Where to from here? And support?

This article has only scratched the surface (but not bad considering the board arrived a few hours ago). There’s plenty more examples on the getting started page, in the IDE (under “Bridge”) – plus a dedicated Arduino Yún forum. And check out this gmail notifier. In the near future we’ll create some of our own tutorials, so stay tuned.

Is the Yún a completely open-source product? 

Well it says “open source electronics prototyping platform” on the rear, but is this true? The Arduino Leonardo-side of the board is. However the Atheros AR9331 chip is not. Nevertheless, are you really going to reproduce your own AR9331? So it doesn’t really matter. Being a pragmatist I propose that the Yún solves the problem of Arduino and Internet connectivity quite well for the non-advanced user – so not being totally OSHW isn’t an issue.

Support

This board is very new to us here, so for questions or support please ask on the dedicated Arduino Yún forum.

Conclusion

Since the popularity of various single-board computers has increased exponentially over the last few months, some may say that the Yún is perhaps too little, too late. After only having the Yún for a few hours before writing this article, personally I disagree with this statement – the Yún is a device that still gives us the wide range of hardware control, and what looks to be a very simple method of connectivity that surely is cheaper and less prone to issues than the original Arduino WiFi shield.

What the Yún gives us is a simple, well-executed method of getting our Arduino connected to the outside world – and in a manner that won’t confuse or put off the beginner or intermediate user. So for now, it’s a win.

What do you think? Leave a comment below.

And for more detail, full-sized images from this article can be found on flickr. And if you’re interested in learning more about Arduino, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post First look – Arduino Yún appeared first on tronixstuff.

Set
18

Tutorial – Arduino and SIM900 GSM Modules

arduino, gsm, lesson, Linksprite, SHD_SIM900_N8, shield, sim900, SIMCOM, sms, tronixstuff, tutorial Commenti disabilitati su Tutorial – Arduino and SIM900 GSM Modules 

Use the SIM900 GSM modules with Arduino in Chapter 55 of our Arduino Tutorials. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Introduction

The goal of this tutorial is to illustrate various methods of interaction between an Arduino Uno (or compatible) and the GSM cellular network using a SIM900 GSM shield, with which you can then use your existing knowledge to build upon those methods.

We’ll be using a SIMCOM SIM900 GSM module shield. (If you’re looking for tutorials on the Spreadtrum SM5100 modules, start here). There must be scores of Arduino shields or modules using the SIM900, so as you can imagine each one may be a little bit different with regards to the hardware side of things – so we’re assuming you have an understanding of how hardware and software serial works as well as supply voltages and the hardware side of the Arduino world.

As for the specific shield to use, we just chose the cheapest one available at the time – which turned out to be the “SIM900 GPRS/GSM Arduino shield” from Linksprite:

Linksprite SIM900 GSM Arduino Shield

However with a little research and work, the sketches provided should also work with any SIM900 module/shield and Arduino – as long as you have the appropriate serial and power settings. 

Getting Started

A little preparation goes a long way, so make sure you’ve covered the following points:

  • Regarding your cellular provider. Do you have coverage on a GSM 850 MHz, GSM 900 MHz, DCS 1800 MHz or PCS 1900 MHz network?  When we say GSM that means 2G – not 3G, 4G or LTE. Will they allow the use of non-supported devices on the network? Some carriers will block IMEI numbers that were not provided by their sales channel. Or you may have to call the provider and supply the IMEI of your GSM module to allow it on the network. Finally, it would be wise to use either a prepaid or an account that offers unlimited SMS text messaging – you don’t want any large bills if things go wrong.
  • Power. Do you have adequate power for your SIM900 module? Some shields will use more current than the Arduino can supply (up to 2A), so you may need an external high-current supply. The Linksprite shield we use needs 5V up to 2A into the onboard DC socket. Otherwise, check with your supplier.
  • Antenna. If your module/shield etc. doesn’t have an antenna – get one. You do need it.
  • Turn off the PIN lock on the SIM card. The easiest way to do this is to put the SIM in a handset and use the menu function.
  • And as always, please don’t make an auto-dialler…

AT-5000 auto dialler

Furthermore, download the SIM900 hardware manual (.pdf) and the AT command manual (.pdf), as we’ll refer to those throughout the tutorial.

Power

There is a DC socket on the shield, which is for a 5V power supply:

Linksprite SIM900 GSM Arduino shield power

Although the data from Linksprite claims the shield will use no more than 450 mA, the SIMCOM hardware manual (page 22) for the module notes that it can draw up to 2A for short bursts. So get yourself a 5V 2A power supply and connect it via the DC socket, and also ensure the switch next to the socket is set to “EXT”.

Furthermore, you can turn the GSM module on and off with the power button on the side of the shield, and it defaults to off during an initial power-up. Therefore you’ll need to set D9 to HIGH for one second in your sketch to turn the module on (or off if required for power-saving). Don’t panic, we’ll show how this is done in the sketches below.

Software Serial

We will use the Arduino software serial library in this tutorial, and the Linksprite shield has hard-wired the serial from the SIM900 to a set of jumpers, and uses a default speed of 19200. Make sure you your jumpers are set to the “SWserial” side, as shown below:

Linksprite GSM SIM900 Arduino shield serial jumpers

And thus whenever an instance of SoftwareSerial is created, we use 7,8 as shown below:

SoftwareSerial SIM900(7, 8); // RX, TX

If you shield is different, you’ll need to change the TX and RX pin numbers. This also means you can’t use an Arduino Leonardo or Mega (easily).

Wow – all those rules and warnings?

The sections above may sound a little authoritarian, however we want your project to be a success. Now, let’s get started…

A quick test…

At this point we’ll check to make sure your shield and locate and connect to the cellular network. So make sure your SIM card is active with your cellular provider, the PIN lock is off, and then insert it and lock the SIM card  to the carrier on the bottom of the shield:

Linksprite Arduino GSM SIM900 shield SIM card

Then plug the shield into your Uno, attach 5V power to the DC socked on the GSM shield, and USB from the Uno to the PC. Press the “PWRKEY” button on the side of the shield for a second, then watch the following two LEDs:

Linksprite GSM Arduino SIM900 shield status LEDs

The bright “STATUS” LED will come on, and then the “NETLIGHT” LED will blink once every 800 milliseconds- until the GSM module has found the network, at which point it will blink once every three seconds. This is shown in the following video:

Nothing can happen until that magic three-second blink – so if that doesn’t appear after a minute, something is wrong. Check your shield has the appropriate power supply, the antenna is connected correctly, the SIM card is seated properly and locked in- and that your cellular account is in order. Finally, you may not have reception in that particular area, so check using a phone on the same network or move to a different location.

Making a telephone call from your Arduino

You can have your Arduino call a telephone number, wait a moment – then hang up. This is an inexpensive way of alerting you of and consider the following sketch:

// Example 55.1

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial SIM900(7, 8); // configure software serial port

void setup()
{
  SIM900.begin(19200);               
  SIM900power();  
  delay(20000);  // give time to log on to network. 
}

void SIM900power()
// software equivalent of pressing the GSM shield "power" button
{
  digitalWrite(9, HIGH);
  delay(1000);
  digitalWrite(9, LOW);
  delay(5000);
}

void callSomeone()
{
  SIM900.println("ATD + +12128675309;"); // dial US (212) 8675309
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println();
  delay(30000);            // wait for 30 seconds...
  SIM900.println("ATH");   // hang up
}

void loop()
{
  callSomeone(); // call someone
  SIM900power();   // power off GSM shield
  do {} while (1); // do nothing
}

The sketch first creates a software serial port, then in void setup() starts the software serial port, and also turns on the GSM shield with the function SIM900power (which simply sets D9 high for a second which is the equivalent of pressing the power button). Notice the delay function in void setup – this gives the GSM module a period of time to locate and log on to the cellular network. You may need to increase (or be able to decrease) the delay value depending on your particular situation. If in doubt, leave it as a long period.

The process of actually making the call is in the function callSomeone(). It sends a string of text to the GSM module which consists of an AT command. These are considered the “language” for modems and thus used for various tasks. We use the ATD command to dial (AT… D for dial) a number. The number as you can see in the sketch needs to be in world-format. So that’s a “+” then the country code, then the phone number with area code (without the preceding zero).

So if your number to call is Australia (02) 92679111 you would enter +61292679111. Etcetera. A carriage return is then sent to finalise the command and off it goes dialling the number. Here’s a quick video demonstration for the non-believers:

After thirty seconds we instruct the module to hand up with another AT command – “ATH” (AT… H for “hang up”), followed by turning off the power to the module. By separating the call feature into a function – you can now insert this into a sketch (plus the preceding setup code) to call a number when required.

Sending an SMS text message

This is a great way of getting data from your Arduino to almost any mobile phone in the world, at a very low cost. For reference, the maximum length of an SMS text message is 160 characters – however you can still say a lot with that size limit. First we’ll demonstrate sending an arbitrary SMS. Consider the following sketch:

// Example 55.2

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial SIM900(7, 8);

void setup()
{
  SIM900.begin(19200);
  SIM900power();  
  delay(20000);  // give time to log on to network. 
}

void SIM900power()
// software equivalent of pressing the GSM shield "power" button
{
  digitalWrite(9, HIGH);
  delay(1000);
  digitalWrite(9, LOW);
  delay(5000);
}

void sendSMS()
{
  SIM900.print("AT+CMGF=1\r");                                                        // AT command to send SMS message
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println("AT + CMGS = \"+12128675309\"");                                     // recipient's mobile number, in international format
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println("Hello, world. This is a text message from an Arduino Uno.");        // message to send
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println((char)26);                       // End AT command with a ^Z, ASCII code 26
  delay(100); 
  SIM900.println();
  delay(5000);                                     // give module time to send SMS
  SIM900power();                                   // turn off module
}

void loop()
{
  sendSMS();
  do {} while (1);
}

The basic structure and setup functions of the sketch are the same as the previous example, however the difference here is the function sendSMS(). It used the AT command “AT+CMGF” to tell the GSM module we want to send an SMS in text form, and then “AT+CMGS” followed by the recipient’s number. Once again note the number is in international format. After sending the send SMS commands, the module needs  five seconds to do this before we can switch it off. And now for our ubiquitous demonstration video:

 

You can also send text messages that are comprised of numerical data and so on – by compiling the required text and data into a string, and then sending that. Doing so gives you a method to send such information as sensor data or other parameters by text message.

For example, you might want to send daily temperature reports or hourly water tank levels. For our example, we’ll demonstrate how to send a couple of random numbers and some text as an SMS. You can then use this as a framework for your own requirements. Consider the following sketch:

// Example 55.3

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial SIM900(7, 8);
int x,y;
String textForSMS;

void setup()
{
  SIM900.begin(19200);
  SIM900power();  
  delay(20000);  // give time to log on to network. 
  randomSeed(analogRead(0));
}

void SIM900power()
// software equivalent of pressing the GSM shield "power" button
{
  digitalWrite(9, HIGH);
  delay(1000);
  digitalWrite(9, LOW);
  delay(7000);
}

void sendSMS(String message)
{
  SIM900.print("AT+CMGF=1\r");                     // AT command to send SMS message
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println("AT + CMGS = \"+12128675309\"");  // recipient's mobile number, in international format
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println(message);                         // message to send
  delay(100);
  SIM900.println((char)26);                        // End AT command with a ^Z, ASCII code 26
  delay(100); 
  SIM900.println();
  delay(5000);                                     // give module time to send SMS
  SIM900power();                                   // turn off module
}

void loop()
{
  x = random(0,255);
  y = random(0,255);
  textForSMS = "Your random numbers are ";
  textForSMS.concat(x);
  textForSMS = textForSMS + " and ";
  textForSMS.concat(y);
  textForSMS = textForSMS + ". Enjoy!";  
  sendSMS(textForSMS);
  do {} while (1);
}

Take note of the changes to the function sendSMS(). It now has a parameter - message, which is a String which contains the text to send as an SMS. In void loop() the string variable textForSMS is constructed. First it contains some text, then the values for x and y are added with some more text. Finally the string is passed to be sent as an SMS. And here it is in action:

Conclusion

After working through this tutorial you should have an understanding of how the basics of the GSM shield and AT commands work. If there’ s demand we’ll continue with more features and possibilities in a future tutorial, so let us know via the contact page.  And if you enjoyed the tutorial, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Tutorial – Arduino and SIM900 GSM Modules appeared first on tronixstuff.

Ago
01

Review – adafruit industries Mini 8×8 LED Matrix with I2C backpack

16K33, adafruit, arduino, demonstration, graphic, holtek, i2c, LED, LED matrix, lesson, matrix, mini, review, scrolling, text, tronixstuff, tutorial Commenti disabilitati su Review – adafruit industries Mini 8×8 LED Matrix with I2C backpack 

Introduction

In this review we have a look at the mini 8×8 LED matrix with I2C backpack from adafruit industries. It looked like a small yet versatile display unit for a couple of project ideas, so as part of the evaluation we’ll run through it with you here. As you can see below, it’s quite small with a 20mm square matrix:

contents

The matrix and the controller are seperate which gives you the option of ordering different colours of matrix. Using LED matrices can be a pain, however these units use the Holtek 16K33 controller IC (data sheet) which has an I2C interface – much easier than the usual mess of shift registers and I/O pins:

holtek

 Furthermore you can change the I2C address using the solder pads on the PCB, giving you four possible options. And as it’s I2C, you can use it with other microcontrollers with a little detective work. Moving forward, we’ll assemble the display then explain how to use it with an Arduino, and show a few demonstrations.

Assembly

There really isn’t anything major to do, just solder the matrix to the backpack and some header pins if you need them. adafruit include some however I’m using the 90-degree ones for my own use:

solderingpins

The soldering should take about one minute tops, and then you’re done:

finished

Using the matrix

From a hardware perspective you only have four wires – 5V, GND, SDA and SCL. Yes – it’s a 5V part, so all you Raspberry Pi fans will need a level shifter, which you can get from adafruit as well. Anyhow once you’ve got it connected to your Arduino, a couple of libraries are required – the matrix and GFX libraries. Be sure to install them in your sketchbook/libraries folder and not the usual location. When saving the library files, call the first folder Adafruit_LEDBackpack and the second Adafruit_GFX as they don’t arrive in that format.

Now for a quick demonstration, it’s simply one from the included library. The display is very bright, so I had to reduce the exposure on the camera which makes the background a little dark – but you get the idea:

A pair of those fitted to a dummy or doll would be quite interesting, or make good eyes for a 21st century “Metal Mickey”. Well that’s quite interesting, so how do you in fact display things on the matrix? I’ve deconstructed a few examples to show you how it’s done.

No matter what, you need to include the libraries, define the matrix object in the sketch and then start it with the matching I2C address – for example:

// required libraries
#include <Wire.h>
#include "Adafruit_LEDBackpack.h"
#include "Adafruit_GFX.h"

// define matrix object
Adafruit_8x8matrix matrix = Adafruit_8x8matrix();

void setup() 
{
  // start the matrix at I2C address - default is 0x70
  matrix.begin(0x70);  // pass in the address
}

To scroll text across the display, modify the following chunk of code:

matrix.setRotation(0);
  matrix.setTextSize(1);
  matrix.setTextWrap(false); // false means nice scroll, true means each character appears, scrolls off, then repeat
  matrix.setTextColor(LED_ON);
  for (int8_t x=0; x>=-96; x--) // 96 is number of characters to display x 8
  {
    matrix.clear();
    matrix.setCursor(x,0);
    matrix.print("Hello, world");
    matrix.writeDisplay();
    delay(100);
  }

First, the setRotation() value is 0~3 and determines which way the text scrolls across the screen. This is useful if you mount the matrix in different positions, as you can still keep the text scrolling in a readable manner. Next, matrix.setTextWrap() – leave this as false,  as true displays each character and then just scrolls it in turn – looking rather odd. Now multiply the number of characters you want to display by 8, and replace the number -96 with negative your value and of course “Hello, world”. Finally follow with rest of the code. There’s a quick demonstration of this code in the sketch and video below:

// required libraries
#include <Wire.h>
#include "Adafruit_LEDBackpack.h"
#include "Adafruit_GFX.h"

// define matrix object
Adafruit_8x8matrix matrix = Adafruit_8x8matrix();

void setup() 
{
  // start the matrix at I2C address - default is 0x70
  matrix.begin(0x70);  // pass in the address
}

void loop()
{
  matrix.setRotation(0);
  matrix.setTextSize(1);
  matrix.setTextWrap(false); // false means nice scroll, true means each character appears, scrolls off, then repeat
  matrix.setTextColor(LED_ON);
  for (int8_t x=0; x>=-96; x--) // 96 is number of characters to display x 8
  {
    matrix.clear();
    matrix.setCursor(x,0);
    matrix.print("Hello, world");
    matrix.writeDisplay();
    delay(100);
  }

  delay(500);
  matrix.setRotation(1);  
  matrix.setTextSize(1);
  matrix.setTextWrap(false); // false means nice scroll, true means each character appears, scrolls off, then repeat
  matrix.setTextColor(LED_ON);
  for (int8_t x=0; x>=-96; x--) // 96 is number of characters to display x 8
  {
    matrix.clear();
    matrix.setCursor(x,0);
    matrix.print("Hello, world");
    matrix.writeDisplay();
    delay(100);
  }  

  delay(500);
  matrix.setRotation(2);  
  matrix.setTextSize(1);
  matrix.setTextWrap(false); // false means nice scroll, true means each character appears, scrolls off, then repeat
  matrix.setTextColor(LED_ON);
  for (int8_t x=0; x>=-96; x--) // 96 is number of characters to display x 8
  {
    matrix.clear();
    matrix.setCursor(x,0);
    matrix.print("Hello, world");
    matrix.writeDisplay();
    delay(100);
  }  

  delay(500);
  matrix.setRotation(3);  
  matrix.setTextSize(1);
  matrix.setTextWrap(false); // false means nice scroll, true means each character appears, scrolls off, then repeat
  matrix.setTextColor(LED_ON);
  for (int8_t x=0; x>=-96; x--) // 96 is number of characters to display x 8
  {
    matrix.clear();
    matrix.setCursor(x,0);
    matrix.print("Hello, world");
    matrix.writeDisplay();
    delay(100);
  }  
}

 

Now for some graphics. You can define your own images (!) and store them in an array. Each arrays consists of eight bytes, each representing a row of the matrix. You can use binary to help visualise the results, for example:

static uint8_t PROGMEM
  crosshatch[] =
  { B10101010,
    B01010101,
    B10101010,
    B01010101,
    B10101010,
    B01010101,
    B10101010,
    B01010101 };

and then to display that on the matrix, use the following:

matrix.clear(); // clear the display
matrix.drawBitmap(0, 0, crosshatch, 8, 8, LED_ON); // setup the image to display
matrix.writeDisplay(); // display the image
delay(1000);

… which resulted with:

crosshatch

To control individual pixels, send one or more of the following:

matrix.drawPixel(x, y, LED_ON);

where x and y are the pixel’s coordinates (that fall between zero and seven), followed by:

matrix.writeDisplay();

Here’s a neat example sketch and video of a single pixel “running around the border”:

// required libraries
#include <Wire.h>
#include "Adafruit_LEDBackpack.h"
#include "Adafruit_GFX.h"

// define matrix object
Adafruit_8x8matrix matrix = Adafruit_8x8matrix();

int z;

void setup() 
{
  // start the matrix at I2C address - default is 0x70
  matrix.begin(0x70);  // pass in the address
}

void loop()
{
  matrix.clear();      // clear display
  for (z=0; z<8; z++)
  {  
    matrix.drawPixel(z, 0, LED_ON);  
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display
    delay(50);
    matrix.drawPixel(z, 0, LED_OFF);  
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display     
  }  

  for (z=0; z<8; z++)
  {  
    matrix.drawPixel(7, z, LED_ON);  
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display
    delay(50);
    matrix.drawPixel(7, z, LED_OFF);  
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display     
  }  

  for (z=7; z>=0; --z)
  {  
    matrix.drawPixel(z, 7, LED_ON);  
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display
    delay(50);
    matrix.drawPixel(z, 7, LED_OFF);  
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display     
  }  

  for (z=7; z>=0; --z)
  {  
    matrix.drawPixel(0, z, LED_ON);  
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display
    delay(50);
    matrix.drawPixel(0, z, LED_OFF);  
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display     
  }  
}

By this point you should be getting the hang of things now, so we’ll finish up with the last three graphic functions at once. To draw a line between x1, y1 and x2, y2 – use:

matrix.drawLine(x1 ,y1 , x2, y2, LED_ON);

To draw a rectangle with corners at x1, y2, x2, y2 – use:

matrix.drawRect(x1, y1, x2, y2, LED_ON);

To draw a filled rectangle with corners at x1, y2, x2, y2 – use:

matrix.fillRect(x1, y1, x2, y2, LED_ON);

And to draw a circle with axis at x,y and a radius of r pixels – use:

matrix.drawCircle(x, y, r, LED_ON);

Now we’ll put those functions into the following sketch and video:

// required libraries
#include <Wire.h>
#include "Adafruit_LEDBackpack.h"
#include "Adafruit_GFX.h"

// define matrix object
Adafruit_8x8matrix matrix = Adafruit_8x8matrix();

int y, z;

void setup() 
{
  // start the matrix at I2C address - default is 0x70
  matrix.begin(0x70);  // pass in the address
}

void loop()
{
  // circles
  for (y=0; y<5; y++)
  {
    for (z=0; z<8; z++)
    {
      matrix.clear();
      matrix.drawCircle(3,3, z, LED_ON);
      matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display
      delay(100);
    }
  }

  for (y=0; y<=5; y++)
  {
    // rectangles
    matrix.clear();
    matrix.drawRect(0, 0, 4, 4, LED_ON);
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display
    delay(250);
    matrix.clear();
    matrix.drawRect(4, 0, 4, 4, LED_ON);
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display
    delay(250);
    matrix.clear();
    matrix.fillRect(4, 4, 7, 7, LED_ON);
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display
    delay(250);
    matrix.clear();
    matrix.fillRect(0, 4, 4, 7, LED_ON);
    matrix.writeDisplay();  // write the changes we just made to the display
    delay(250);
  }
}

 

If you want to get someone’s attention, you can blink whatever’s on the matrix at various frequencies – and of course turn it off. In the following function, use 0 for off, and 1~3 for different rates:

matrix.blinkRate(x);

Finally, you can also adjust the brightness to one of sixteen levels (0~15) using:

matrix.setBrightness(level); // level: 0~15

That’s enough blinkiness for now. Remember the library is just shielding you from the raw I2C commands, so if you want to create your own functions or use a non-Arduino board – examine the library and the data sheet.

Conclusion

The backpack makes using the matrix an absolute breeze, and the library saves a lot of time and effort – leaving you to get on with creating your ideas into projects. You can get the matrix from adafruit and their distributors.

Full-sized images available on flickr.  And if you made it this far – check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

[Note - item purchased without notifying the supplier]

The post Review – adafruit industries Mini 8×8 LED Matrix with I2C backpack appeared first on tronixstuff.

Lug
02

Tutorial – Arduino and the TI ADS1110 16-bit ADC

ADC, ads1110, analogue, arduino, converter, digital, i2c, instruments, lesson, texas, TI, tronixstuff, tutorial Commenti disabilitati su Tutorial – Arduino and the TI ADS1110 16-bit ADC 

Learn how to use the TI ADS1110 16-bit ADC with Arduino in chapter fifty-three of my Arduino Tutorials. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Updated 02/07/2013

Introduction

Moving on from the last chapter where we explained an 8-bit ADC, in this instalment we have the Texas Instruments ADS1110 – an incredibly tiny but useful 16-bit analogue-to-digital converter IC.  It can operate between 2.7 and 5.5 V so it’s also fine for Arduino Due and other lower-voltage development boards. This is a quick guide to get you going with the ADS1110 ready for further applications. Before continuing any further, please download the data sheet (pdf) as it will be useful and referred to during this tutorial. The ADS1110 gives you the option of a more accurate ADC than offered by the Arduino’s 10-bit ADCs – and it’s relatively easy to use. The only block for some is the package type – it’s only available in SOT23-6:

So unless you’re making a customised PCB, some sort of breakout will be required. One useful example is the Schmartboard we reviewed earlier:

ads1110schmartboard

The ADS1110 uses the I2C bus for communication, so if this is new to you – please review the I2C tutorials before continuing. And as there’s only six pins you can’t set the bus address – instead, you can select from six variants of the ADS1110 – each with their own address (see page two of the data sheet). As you can see the in the photo above, ours is marked “EDO” which matches to the bus address 1001000 or 0x48h. And with the example circuits we’ve used 10kΩ pull-up resistors on the I2C bus. You can use the ADS1110 as either a single-ended or differential ADC –  But first we need to examine the configuration register which is used to control various attributes, and the data register.

Configuration register

Turn to page eleven of the data sheet. The configuration register is one byte in size, and as the ADS1110 resets on a power-cycle – you need to reset the register if your needs are different to the defaults. The data sheet spells it out quite neatly… bits 0 and 1 determine the gain setting for the PGA (programmable gain amplifier). If you’re just measuring voltages or experimenting, leave these as zero for a gain of 1V/V. Next, the data rate for the ADS1110 is controlled with bits 2 and 3. If you have continuous sampling turned on, this determines the number of samples per second taken by the ADC.

After some experimenting with an Arduino Uno we found the values returned from the ADC were a bit off when using the fastest rate, so leave it as 15 SPS unless required otherwise. Bit 4 sets either continuous sampling (0) or one-off sampling (1). Ignore bits 5 and 6, however they’re always set as 0. Finally bit 7 – if you’re in one-off sampling mode, setting it to 1 requests a sample – and reading it will tell you if the returned data is new (0) or old (1). You can check that the value measured is a new value – if the first bit of the configuration byte that comes after the data is 0, it’s new. If it returns 1 the ADC conversion hasn’t finished.

Data register

As the ADS1110 is a 16-bit ADC, it returns the data over two bytes – and then follows with the value of the configuration register. So if you request three bytes the whole lot comes back. The data is in “two’s complement” form, which is a method of using signed numbers with binary. Converting those two bytes is done by some simple maths. When sampling at 15 SPS, the value returned by the ADS1110 (not the voltage)  falls between -32768 and 32767. The higher byte of the value is multiplied by 256, then added to the lower byte – which is then multiplied by 2.048 and finally divided by 32768. Don’t panic, as we do this in the example sketch below.

Single-ended ADC mode

In this mode you can read a voltage that falls between zero and 2.048 V (which also happens to be the inbuilt reference voltage for the ADS1110). The example circuit is simple (from the data sheet):

singledemoDon’t forget the 10kΩ pull-up resistors on the I2C bus. The following sketch uses the ADS1110 in the default mode, and simply returns the voltage measured:

// Example 53.1 - ADS1110 single-sided voltmeter (0~2.048VDC)

#include "Wire.h"
#define ads1110 0x48
float voltage, data;
byte highbyte, lowbyte, configRegister;
void setup()
{
 Serial.begin(9600);
 Wire.begin();
}
void loop()
{
 Wire.requestFrom(ads1110, 3);
 while(Wire.available()) // ensure all the data comes in
 {
 highbyte = Wire.read(); // high byte * B11111111
 lowbyte = Wire.read(); // low byte
 configRegister = Wire.read();
 }

 data = highbyte * 256;
 data = data + lowbyte;
 Serial.print("Data >> ");
 Serial.println(data, DEC);
 Serial.print("Voltage >> ");
 voltage = data * 2.048 ;
 voltage = voltage / 32768.0;
 Serial.print(voltage, DEC);
 Serial.println(" V");
 delay(1000);
}

Once uploaded, connect the signal to measure and open the serial monitor – you’ll be presented with something similar to:

singledemosm

If you need to alter the gain of the internal programmable gain amplifier of the ADC – you’ll need to write a new byte into the configuration register using:

Wire.beginTransmission(ads1110);
Wire.write(configuration byte); 
Wire.endTransmission();

before requesting the ADC data. This would be 0x8D, 0x8E or 0x8F for gain values of 2, 4 and 8 respectively – and use 0x8C to reset the ADS1110 back to default.

Differential ADC mode

In this mode you can read the difference between two voltages that each fall between zero and 5 V. The example circuit is simple (from the data sheet):

diffcircuit

We must note here (and in the data sheet) that the ADS1110 can’t accept negative voltages on either of the inputs. You can use the previous sketch for the same results – and the resulting voltage will be the value of Vin- subtracted from Vin+. For example, if you had 2 V on Vin+ and 1 V on Vin- the resulting voltage would be 1 V (with the gain set to 1).

Conclusion

Once again I hope you found this of interest, and possibly useful. And if you enjoy my tutorials, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

LEDborder

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Tutorial – Arduino and the TI ADS1110 16-bit ADC appeared first on tronixstuff.

Giu
17

Learn how to use the NXP PCF 8591 8-bit A/D and D/A IC with Arduino in chapter fifty-two of my Arduino Tutorials. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Updated 17/06/2013

Introduction

Have you ever wanted more analogue input pins on your Arduino project, but not wanted to fork out for a Mega? Or would you like to generate analogue signals? Then check out the subject of our tutorial – the NXP PCF8591 IC. It solves both these problems as it has a single DAC (digital to analogue) converter as well as four ADCs (analogue to digital converters) – all accessible via the I2C bus. If the I2C bus is new to you, please familiarise yourself with the readings here before moving forward.

The PCF8591 is available in DIP form, which makes it easy to experiment with:

pcf8591

You can get them from the usual retailers. Before moving on, download the data sheet. The PCF8591 can operate on both 5V and 3.3V so if you’re using an Arduino Due, Raspberry Pi or other 3.3 V development board you’re fine. Now we’ll first explain the DAC, then the ADCs.

Using the DAC (digital-to-analogue converter)

The DAC on the PCF8591 has a resolution of 8-bits – so it can generate a theoretical signal of between zero volts and the reference voltage (Vref) in 255 steps. For demonstration purposes we’ll use a Vref of 5V, and you can use a lower Vref such as 3.3V or whatever you wish the maximum value to be … however it must be less than the supply voltage. Note that when there is a load on the analogue output (a real-world situation), the maximum output voltage will drop – the data sheet (which you downloaded) shows a 10% drop for a 10kΩ load. Now for our demonstration circuit:

pcf8591basic_schem

Note the use of 10kΩ pull-up resistors on the I2C bus, and the 10μF capacitor between 5V and GND. The I2C bus address is set by a combination of pins A0~A2, and with them all to GND the address is 0×90. The analogue output can be taken from pin 15 (and there’s a seperate analogue GND on pin 13. Also, connect pin 13 to GND, and circuit GND to Arduino GND.

To control the DAC we need to send two bytes of data. The first is the control byte, which simply activates the DAC and is 1000000 (or 0×40) and the next byte is the value between 0 and 255 (the output level). This is demonstrated in the following sketch:

// Example 52.1 PCF8591 DAC demo
// http://tronixstuff.com/tutorials Chapter 52
// John Boxall June 2013
#include "Wire.h"
#define PCF8591 (0x90 >> 1) // I2C bus address
void setup()
{
 Wire.begin();
}
void loop()
{
 for (int i=0; i<256; i++)
 {
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(0x40); // control byte - turn on DAC (binary 1000000)
 Wire.write(i); // value to send to DAC
 Wire.endTransmission(); // end tranmission
 }

 for (int i=255; i>=0; --i)
 {
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(0x40); // control byte - turn on DAC (binary 1000000)
 Wire.write(i); // value to send to DAC
 Wire.endTransmission(); // end tranmission
 }
}

Did you notice the bit shift of the bus address in the #define statement? Arduino sends 7-bit addresses but the PCF8591 wants an 8-bit, so we shift the byte over by one bit. 

The results of the sketch are shown below, we’ve connected the Vref to 5V and the oscilloscope probe and GND to the analogue output and GND respectively:

triangle

If you like curves you can generate sine waves with the sketch below. It uses a lookup table in an array which contains the necessary pre-calculated data points:

// Example 52.2 PCF8591 DAC demo - sine wave
// http://tronixstuff.com/tutorials Chapter 52
// John Boxall June 2013

#include "Wire.h"
#define PCF8591 (0x90 >> 1) // I2C bus address

uint8_t sine_wave[256] = {
 0x80, 0x83, 0x86, 0x89, 0x8C, 0x90, 0x93, 0x96,
 0x99, 0x9C, 0x9F, 0xA2, 0xA5, 0xA8, 0xAB, 0xAE,
 0xB1, 0xB3, 0xB6, 0xB9, 0xBC, 0xBF, 0xC1, 0xC4,
 0xC7, 0xC9, 0xCC, 0xCE, 0xD1, 0xD3, 0xD5, 0xD8,
 0xDA, 0xDC, 0xDE, 0xE0, 0xE2, 0xE4, 0xE6, 0xE8,
 0xEA, 0xEB, 0xED, 0xEF, 0xF0, 0xF1, 0xF3, 0xF4,
 0xF5, 0xF6, 0xF8, 0xF9, 0xFA, 0xFA, 0xFB, 0xFC,
 0xFD, 0xFD, 0xFE, 0xFE, 0xFE, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFE, 0xFE, 0xFE, 0xFD,
 0xFD, 0xFC, 0xFB, 0xFA, 0xFA, 0xF9, 0xF8, 0xF6,
 0xF5, 0xF4, 0xF3, 0xF1, 0xF0, 0xEF, 0xED, 0xEB,
 0xEA, 0xE8, 0xE6, 0xE4, 0xE2, 0xE0, 0xDE, 0xDC,
 0xDA, 0xD8, 0xD5, 0xD3, 0xD1, 0xCE, 0xCC, 0xC9,
 0xC7, 0xC4, 0xC1, 0xBF, 0xBC, 0xB9, 0xB6, 0xB3,
 0xB1, 0xAE, 0xAB, 0xA8, 0xA5, 0xA2, 0x9F, 0x9C,
 0x99, 0x96, 0x93, 0x90, 0x8C, 0x89, 0x86, 0x83,
 0x80, 0x7D, 0x7A, 0x77, 0x74, 0x70, 0x6D, 0x6A,
 0x67, 0x64, 0x61, 0x5E, 0x5B, 0x58, 0x55, 0x52,
 0x4F, 0x4D, 0x4A, 0x47, 0x44, 0x41, 0x3F, 0x3C,
 0x39, 0x37, 0x34, 0x32, 0x2F, 0x2D, 0x2B, 0x28,
 0x26, 0x24, 0x22, 0x20, 0x1E, 0x1C, 0x1A, 0x18,
 0x16, 0x15, 0x13, 0x11, 0x10, 0x0F, 0x0D, 0x0C,
 0x0B, 0x0A, 0x08, 0x07, 0x06, 0x06, 0x05, 0x04,
 0x03, 0x03, 0x02, 0x02, 0x02, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01,
 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x02, 0x02, 0x02, 0x03,
 0x03, 0x04, 0x05, 0x06, 0x06, 0x07, 0x08, 0x0A,
 0x0B, 0x0C, 0x0D, 0x0F, 0x10, 0x11, 0x13, 0x15,
 0x16, 0x18, 0x1A, 0x1C, 0x1E, 0x20, 0x22, 0x24,
 0x26, 0x28, 0x2B, 0x2D, 0x2F, 0x32, 0x34, 0x37,
 0x39, 0x3C, 0x3F, 0x41, 0x44, 0x47, 0x4A, 0x4D,
 0x4F, 0x52, 0x55, 0x58, 0x5B, 0x5E, 0x61, 0x64,
 0x67, 0x6A, 0x6D, 0x70, 0x74, 0x77, 0x7A, 0x7D
};
void setup()
{
 Wire.begin();
}
void loop()
{
 for (int i=0; i<256; i++)
 {
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(0x40); // control byte - turn on DAC (binary 1000000)
 Wire.write(sine_wave[i]); // value to send to DAC
 Wire.endTransmission(); // end tranmission
 }
}

And the results:

sine

For the following DSO image dump, we changed the Vref to 3.3V – note the change in the maxima on the sine wave:

sine3v3

Now you can experiment with the DAC to make sound effects, signals or control other analogue circuits.

Using the ADCs (analogue-to-digital converters)

If you’ve used the analogRead() function on your Arduino (way back in Chapter One) then you’re already familiar with an ADC. With out PCF8591 we can read a voltage between zero and the Vref and it will return a value of between zero and 255 which is directly proportional to zero and the Vref. For example, measuring 3.3V should return 168. The resolution (8-bit) of the ADC is lower than the onboard Arduino (10-bit) however the PCF8591 can do something the Arduino’s ADC cannot. But we’ll get to that in a moment.

First, to simply read the values of each ADC pin we send a control byte to tell the PCF8591 which ADC we want to read. For ADCs zero to three the control byte is 0×00, 0×01, ox02 and 0×03 respectively. Then we ask for two bytes of data back from the ADC, and store the second byte for use. Why two bytes? The PCF8591 returns the previously measured value first – then the current byte. (See Figure 8 in the data sheet). Finally, if you’re not using all the ADC pins, connect the unused ones to GND.

The following example sketch simply retrieves values from each ADC pin one at a time, then displays them in the serial monitor:

// Example 52.3 PCF8591 ADC demo
// http://tronixstuff.com/tutorials Chapter 52
// John Boxall June 2013
#include "Wire.h"
#define PCF8591 (0x90 >> 1) // I2C bus address
#define ADC0 0x00 // control bytes for reading individual ADCs
#define ADC1 0x01
#define ADC2 0x02
#define ADC3 0x03
byte value0, value1, value2, value3;
void setup()
{
 Wire.begin();
 Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop()
{
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(ADC0); // control byte - read ADC0
 Wire.endTransmission(); // end tranmission
 Wire.requestFrom(PCF8591, 2);
 value0=Wire.read();
 value0=Wire.read();
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(ADC1); // control byte - read ADC1
 Wire.endTransmission(); // end tranmission
 Wire.requestFrom(PCF8591, 2);
 value1=Wire.read();
 value1=Wire.read();
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(ADC2); // control byte - read ADC2
 Wire.endTransmission(); // end tranmission
 Wire.requestFrom(PCF8591, 2);
 value2=Wire.read();
 value2=Wire.read();
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(ADC3); // control byte - read ADC3
 Wire.endTransmission(); // end tranmission
 Wire.requestFrom(PCF8591, 2);
 value3=Wire.read();
 value3=Wire.read();
 Serial.print(value0); Serial.print(" ");
 Serial.print(value1); Serial.print(" ");
 Serial.print(value2); Serial.print(" ");
 Serial.print(value3); Serial.print(" ");
 Serial.println();
}

Upon running the sketch you’ll be presented with the values of each ADC in the serial monitor. Although it was a simple demonstration to show you how to individually read each ADC, it is a cumbersome method of getting more than one byte at a time from a particular ADC.

To do this, change the control byte to request auto-increment, which is done by setting bit 2 of the control byte to 1. So to start from ADC0 we use a new control byte of binary 00000100 or hexadecimal 0×04. Then request five bytes of data (once again we ignore the first byte) which will cause the PCF8591 to return all values in one chain of bytes. This process is demonstrated in the following sketch:

// Example 52.4 PCF8591 ADC demo
// http://tronixstuff.com/tutorials Chapter 52
// John Boxall June 2013
#include "Wire.h"
#define PCF8591 (0x90 >> 1) // I2C bus address
byte value0, value1, value2, value3;
void setup()
{
 Wire.begin();
 Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop()
{
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(0x04); // control byte - read ADC0 then auto-increment
 Wire.endTransmission(); // end tranmission
 Wire.requestFrom(PCF8591, 5);
 value0=Wire.read();
 value0=Wire.read();
 value1=Wire.read();
 value2=Wire.read();
 value3=Wire.read();
 Serial.print(value0); Serial.print(" ");
 Serial.print(value1); Serial.print(" ");
 Serial.print(value2); Serial.print(" ");
 Serial.print(value3); Serial.print(" ");
 Serial.println();
}

Previously we mentioned that the PCF8591 can do something that the Arduino’s ADC cannot, and this is offer a differential ADC. As opposed to the Arduino’s single-ended (i.e. it returns the difference between the positive signal voltage and GND, the differential ADC accepts two signals (that don’t necessarily have to be referenced to ground), and returns the difference between the two signals. This can be convenient for measuring small changes in voltages for load cells and so on.

Setting up the PCF8591 for differential ADC is a simple matter of changing the control byte. If you turn to page seven of the data sheet, then consider the different types of analogue input programming. Previously we used mode ’00′ for four inputs, however you can select the others which are clearly illustrated, for example:

adcmodes

So to set the control byte for two differential inputs, use binary 00110000 or 0×30. Then it’s a simple matter of requesting the bytes of data and working with them. As you can see there’s also combination single/differential and a complex three-differential input. However we’ll leave them for the time being.

Conclusion

Hopefully you found this of interest, whether adding a DAC to your experiments or learning a bit more about ADCs. We’ll have some more analogue to digital articles coming up soon, so stay tuned. And if you enjoy my tutorials, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

LEDborder

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

The post Tutorial – Arduino and PCF8591 ADC DAC IC appeared first on tronixstuff.



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